Rapides Parish, Louisiana History and Genealogy
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Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwest Louisiana Index
Including Thirteen Parishes
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Note: This is not an exact copy of the book.

This parish forms a part of Central Louisiana, but still belongs to the southern tier of the parishes of the territory known as Northwestern Louisiana. It embraces the congressional townships and fractional townships known as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, north, and 1 and 2 south of the base line, in Ranges 1,2, 3 and 4 west, and 1 and 2 east of the second principal meridian. Alexandria, the seat of justice, is in Latitude 31° 18' north and Longitude 15° 22' west, eighty feet above sea level, and on the border of the sugar producing country, of which the southern townships form a part.

The lands of Rapides comprise the longleaf pine hills, 900 square miles, the oak uplands, 123 square miles, and the alluvial, or Red River bottom lands, 475 square miles. In 1879-80 there were 76,149 acres of land in cultivation, of which 25,622 acres were in cotton, yielding 17,590 bales; 29,366 acres in corn, 1,875, in sugar cane, 2 acres in rice and 232 acres in sweet potatoes. The bottom lands of Rapides are said to form the most productive portion of the Red River Valley. The returns of Assessor Haworth for 1890 give the following statistics: Total assessment, $3,493, 306; total poll tax, $4,984; barrels of molasses; 12,800 hogsheads of sugar, 3,350; barrels of sugar; 5,188; bales of cotton, 17,930; bushels of corn, 490,320; bales of hay, 25,800; bushels of potatoes, 55,200.

The total population in 1880 was 23,503, or 9,512 White, and 14,051 Colored. In 1870 there were 7,742 Whites, and 10,207 Colored; in 1800, In 1860 taxes were paid on 377,099 acres. Of this area there were 291,021 acres uncultivated; 13,460, under cane, produced 12,800 hogsheads of sugar and 23,090 hands of molasses; 37,460 acres under cotton, yielded 13,800 hales; 31,731 acres under corn, produced 674,587 bushels, and 60 acres of rice yielded heavily. There were 14,339 slaves, valued at $7,535,871, while the real estate was valued at $8,130,203. The assessed value of horses was $454,136; of carriages, $54,964, of moneys, at interest and in trade. $495,000; of stock In steamboats, $2,500, and of unseated real estate, $13,085, or a total valuation of $10,685,646. The number who paid trade or profession tax, 120, and the number of poll-tax payers. In 1,997 J. J. Swan was then assessor. 11,711 Whites, 291 free Colored, and 15,358 slaves, or a total of 25,390. In 1850 the population was 11,300 slaves, 184 free Colored, and 5,037 Whites; in 1840, 10,511 slaves, 378 free Colored, and 3,243 Whites: in 1830, 5.329 slaves, 113 free Colored, and 2,133 Whites; in 1820. 2,491 Whites; 85 free Colored, and 3.4890 slaves; in 1810, 966 Whites, 123 free Colored, and 1,081 slaves, or a total of 2,200 in 1810. The population in May, 1890 (assessor's returns), was 24,539 of whom 2,000 were subject to military duty. In June, 1890, the United States enumerators found 27,535 inhabitants in the parish. The number of children of school age is 9,127, of whom 4,915 are of African descent, there being 2,488 Colored males, and 2,427 Colored females.

Red River flows in a general southeasterly course through the northeastern half of the parish. The stages of high water in this river, at Alexandria, since 1872 are as follows: April 29, 1872. 33.30 feet; June 19, 1873, 30.20 feet; May 10, 1874, 34 feet: April 27, 1875, 23.90 feet; April 17, 1876, 32.80 feet; May 15, 1877, 25.45 feet; March 16, 1878, 27.05 feet; May 26, 1879, 19.20 feet; April 12, 1880, 21.80 feet; March 20, 1881, 24.75 feet; March 17, 1882, 34.85 feet; March 20, 1883, 26.20 feet; May 30, 1884, 35.25 feet; May 19, 1885, 30.90 feet; June 17, 1880, 27.90 feet; March 24, 1887, 14.90 feet: March 27, 1888, 29.60 feet, and on February 5, 1889, 29.90 feet. In June, 1886, the river rose to 36.46 feet, and flooded the town, while on May 19, 1890, the water rose 36.85 feet, but did not flood the town, the levees being raised and guarded day and night by the citizens. The fifty hours rain of June, 1886 caused a rise of 25 feet, and 1.75 inches in Red River, at Alexandria. It was the heaviest continuous rainfall ever known here.

The headwaters of the Atchafalaya and of the Calcasieu rise here, and several streams, such as historic Bayou Boeuf and Bayou Rapides, flow at random through as fertile a country as exists. In the fall of 1860 M. Maillefert (who in 1855 was contractor for deepening the channel at the falls, near Alexandria) discovered the remains of a mastodon, the teeth of which were four and one half inches with tusks six inches in diameter.

In the middle of the last century great herds of buffalo visited Louisiana annually, and mention is made of this animal as well as of others by early explorers, excerpts from whose letters on this subject are made in this work. The deer are still here with the wolf and the boar. During the war several immigrants came in from the Trans-Mississippi States, such as the mink, otter, and smaller animals, and the panther, which migrated years ago, revisits his old screaming grounds. In July, 1890, P. J. Sleet, of Bayou Rapides, purchased a White mocking bird, caught near his store. This rare songster has pink eyes.

At the McEnery quarry, above Boyce, a good quality of building stone is found. This rock when broken makes excellent macadam, and has been used by the city of Shreveport in making roadways. Even for bridge piers it is well adapted and it is intended to use this rock in the piers for the proposed bridges over Red River at Alexandria.

The back lands, beyond the valley of the Red River, are clothed in large pine, while the alluvial lands, north of Latitude 31° are devoted to cotton, while south of that degree, to sugar cane. Great bay fields covered with a mixture of native and Bermuda grasses are common and produce largely.

The proposed railroads are the Kansas City, Watkins & Gulf Railroad, from Lake Charles to Alexandria and thence northwestward through Sabine, De Soto and Caddo; the Houston Central, from Alexandria via Monroe to Arkansas City, partly built; the Louisiana & Northern, from Alexandria through Winn, Bienville and Claiborne Parishes to Camden, Ark., partly built; and the Trinity, Sabine & Red River Railroad, from New Trinity, on the Ouachita, to Ogden, Tex. The bridging of the Red River at Alexandria may be accomplished in 1891.

A plat made by the Spanish commission in October, 1803, shows the location of the Beluxy, Pascagoula, Old Yonahny and Choctaw villages. In 1813 there were three large claims in Rapides, on Bayou Boeuf, above Bayou Clear, derived from titles from the Indians, approved by Spanish governors, viz.: Joseph Gillard's 16,000 acres from the Pascagoula Indians, of which 9,300 acres were confirmed; Miller & Fulton's 46,600 arpents on Bayou Boeuf, from the Choctaws, and another claim of 11,230 arpents, or 9,487 acres, from the Appalachia and Tensas Indians. The conveyance from the Tensas was approved by Manuel de Salcedo, governor. Miller and Fulton were traders at the post of Rapides as early as 1803. In March, 1813, there were 184 claims. Caesar Archinard was commandant of the post of Rapides, in 1798; Richard Claiborne was judge of Rapides in 1811, and Valentine Layssard, surveyor and military commandant. The latter, in his testimony of January, 1812, in the Gilliard's claim, states that the Pascagoula Indians were given permission to form a settlement in the place known as Les Ecores du Rigolet du Bon Dien, at the confluence with Red River. De Blanc was then chief, and the permit was issued to him by Joseph de la Pena, of the Natchitoches post. The chief resided on a hill near Rigolet du Bon Dien, while several clearings were made between Bayou Philippe and the chief's house.

In March, 1795, the Pascagoula lands were sold, and Layssard was ordered to settle with the tribe at Catahoula, but the Indians moved that year to the Choctaw lands (settled by them in 1778), on Bayou Boeuf. Michael La Prerie, who was born at the post of Rapides, in 1774, substantiated the evidence of the surveyor. The Appalaohe Indians (Chief Luis) had their villages on the southwest side of Red River, below and adjoining the Pascagoula territory. In May, 1802, the sale to Miller & Fulton of the lands of the Choctaw, Pascagoula and Beluxy Indians, on Bayou Boeuf, was certified by Chicacha, Puschus, De Blanc, brother of Grand Chief Mingo, and Melad. The Choctaws who signed the petition asking permission to sell their lands so as to pay their debts, were Mataha (chief of Beluxy), Slopahibahi (second chief), Legrose Frize, Cachounabe, Lagrosselette, the son of Ocean, Thomas Cachounabe, Cachenot, Le Bon Casseur, Peti Peti, son of La Culotte, son of Gros Femme, Holop Finau, Petoche Laine, Atiape, Chapeau Camilia, Dalsida and son of Culotte le Jeune. This petition was drawn up at the house of Nicholas Chatelin, for the Indians. In Rapides, f the Opelousas and Avoyelles (right bank of Bayou Boeuf) road, was an Indian village up to 1802. In 1803 Thomas Long and Littleton located there.

In 1816 James and Sarah Jeune claimed 800 arpents (original Spanish concession) in Bayou Rapides, as grunted in 1802 by lieutenant-Gen. Juan Ventura Morales. John Hebrard claimed 3,200 superficial acres on Black River, as granted by Gov. Estevan Miro in 1786. Claims were also made by Dawson Hull, Bernard Gaynard, Pedro Lamero (1791), Jacques McAnulty (1798), on Bayou de Canne, Cyprian La Cour (near the Cuney lands), William Miller (at falls of Row Gully Bayou), Madam Burney, Baptiste Valerie and John Henderson (Bayou Cote), Hugh Bailey, Jean L. and Mary La Croix, Mark Powell, Hugh Coyle, F. Arro (Pointe Maigre), John, James and Ignatius Tear (Bayou de Cordille), John Holley (Bayou Hemphill), Jesse Kirkland (Avoyelles Prairie), Edmund Fahey (mouth of Sandy Bayou), Pierre Baillio (opposite mouth of Bayou Martean), Xavier Robichant, Dr. Green and Victor Rabin (Catahoula Prairie), Milling Vooley and Charles McKernon (at the ferry on road from Avoyelles to Alexandria), Augustin and Francis Bordelon, Joseph Gaspard, Joseph Renois (Bayou Rapides), Valerie Dozat, Joseph Gautier, Joseph Roy, Urban Blanche, P. Dupre, C. Fonche, Joseph Firmin (Avoyelles Prairie), Louis Huffman (Red River), William Laeey (Catahoula Prairie), Celostin Moreau, Jacques Des Hotel (Bayou Rouge Prairie), Mark Elishe, Ludling, Gideon Walker (Avoyelles Prairie), Andrew Evan, James McAnulty, John Breard, V. Raimon, T. Passano (L. Isle do Racourcie), William L. Collins (Bayou Rouge, where an old doctor settled in 1784), Henry and J. P. Decotte, Michael Barry (Avoyelles Prairie), George Rowe (where the Indians lived, on Bayou Boeuf), John Shults (lied River), Gabriel Martin (Bayou Rapides), David Duplochin (Bayou du Lac), R. T. Sackett (west branch of Cotelle Bayou), Benjamin Miller, V. Scroggs ( White Bluff), Stephen Fluke, John Sandres, Henry Pal more (Red River), Jean Laflord (cut off), Thomas Bays, James M. Mane due, J. M. T. Husk (Red River), Martin Despalber, Val Layssard, Joseph Lanoir, Baylon Layssard (Bayou Rapides), while near by were the lands of Nicholas Walshe and Alex Fulton, John Myers (Bayou Marteau), Robert Wilson, J. White (Black River), William Hargrove, Littleton Long (Bayou Boeuf), George. Wolf, Ann Vade (three miles below Alexandria), Beverly Chew (Bayou Rapides), James Levins (Sicily Island), Richard and Matthew Earls (Catahoula settlement), Benjamin Lindsey (Prairie Boeuf), Morris McLaughlin (Little River), Paul Cavener (Island of Bayou Lamoure), John Hickland, D. McClure, John Watson (Burnt Prairie), William Beasley (Bayou Boeuf), Joseph Procelle, (Bayou Cotie), Charlotte Ledoux (Charlette Prairie; her house was built in 1794), Alex Freeland (Little Lake), Robert and Joseph Tanner, W. Pierce, Paul Robert, Stephen Jackson, John Grimble (Bayou Boeuf), Henry Burger (Bayou Cannes), Jean B. Leonard (Avoyelles Prairie), Angelic Des Hotel, Jean de Lavarre (cut-off), John P. Farkin, John Harrison (Sicily Island), Nicholas Gallien (Red River), N. Tennas, William Murphy, Joseph Poiret (Bayou Boeuf), James Say (Wiggins Creek), Barns Clark (Bayou Row Gully), Nicholas G. Vedricin (Red River), John Cooney (Bayou Boeuf), John Moore (Red River), Benjamin Ritchie (Bayou Cotie), David Lard (Bayou Rapides), Ed Dorsey, James Nelson (Bayou Mason), Bosra, the Indian, claimed lands on Avoyelles Prairie, between the plantations of Hypolite Trion and Joseph Carmonche, confirmed to him in 1786 by Jacques Gaynard, commandant at the post of Avoyelles, by instructions from Gov. Miro.

Maturin Babin inhabited lands on the south side of Bayou Catahoula as early as 1800. John Hebert, then aged fifty-seven years, testified to this fact, and was believed, while one John Rutledge, a witness for John Carroll, and a professional liar, would not be relied upon by the commissioners. Prior to 1814 a man by the name of Mecom was killed during a dispute over the ownership .of lands on Bayou Mason. One Combs was accused of this crime, but he and Rutledge fled. Fraudulent entries were common and Rutledge and others were brought forward to swear to their validity.

A thousand novels could be written on facts suggested by those names. Ten thousand pages could not contain the incidents, connected with the lives of the men named. One incident, however, may be related here. The duel of September 19, 1827, resolved itself into a free tight between the Curry's, Wells and Bowies on the first part and the physicians, Maddox and N. Wright and the Blanchard's and Col. Crane on the, second part. The affair took place at the sand bar at Natchez.

The duelists, Dr. Maddox and Samuel Wells fired two shots and settled the point of honor without injuring one another. Afterward Curry and Crane resolved to settle old feuds, Maj. Wright went to the assistance of Crane, who had inflicted a slight wound on Bowie; but was encountered by Bowie, and cut in two by the dreadful knife in the hand of the desperado. In later years Crane and Bowie met in New York under most peculiar circumstances and were afterward friends until Bowie was killed, while drunk or sleeping, at the Alamo March 6, 1836.

Rapides Parish was established in 1805, and officers appointed to administer its affairs. Its original territory, while not nearly so extensive as that of Natchitoches Parish (also formed that year), was large indeed and, up to 1808, when Avoyelles was detached, complete in her ambitious and proud of her size and power. The incisive methods of the legislature of 1807-08 were not received with anything approaching applause by the people of the upper portion of the parish. The division of the territory was opposed by Representative Johnson without success. For several years the parish judge was, in fact, administrator of public affairs, and in most cases attended to judicial business. Thomas C. Scott, who was parish judge in 1833, was succeeded shortly after by John H. Johnson. In 1836 William J. Calvitt was sheriff. Judge Henry Boyce, who came from Ireland to Louisiana in 1829, died March 1, 1873.

In the thirties he was elected judge of this district, and held the position fifteen years, when he was appointed United States district judge for Western Louisiana, a position he filled up to 1861. in 1865 he was elected representative, and the Legislature elected him United States Senator, but the National authorities refused to give him, the seat. All his contemporaries died before him, Judge Bullard, Richard Winn (who died in 1840), Dunbar, Elgee; Ogden, Flint and other members of the old bar of Rapides. The vacancy on (he Supreme bench caused by the, death of William M. Levy was filled by Thomas C. Manning in 1882.

Very little that is authentic can now be learned of the district court or of the police jury of ante helium days, for in 1864 the records were destroyed. The jurors in 1850 were: L. Baily, Rigolet, president; Charles C. Cheney, Cheneyville; Col. T. J. Wells, Spring Creek; William Vest, Annacoco; R. Smart, West; William Justice, Cotile; G. Lacour, Jr., Plaisance; D. C. Goodwyn, Alexandria; J. M. Sollibellos, Pine Woods; W. H. T. Bynum, Rapides; J. Dunham, Calcasieu; W. C. C. Martin, Lamourie; J. L. Lawrence, Bertrand Prairie. A decade may be said to have seen all those men retired and new men chosen to represent the wards. They were dangerous times when ignorance, passion and prejudice played politics and led men to change their friends, their officials and their own minds as often as opportunity afforded them a chance.

In June, 1860, the police jury elected the following named officers: G. Baillio, president; J. N. Rhorer, clerk; D. V. Shaw, officer; M. . R. Ariail, Attorney; E. E. Price, physician, and E. R. Biossat, treasurer. The members of the jury of 1859 who held over were Neal Davidson, N. Villian, C. V. Boyce, J. P. Eddleman, E. M. Clark, and T. B. Helm. The new members were J. H. Hynson, A. Rachal, John Davis, S. D. Williams, Gervais Baillio, and Ed. A. Neal. There were 10.1 syndics and fifty-one captains of patrol appointed; at this time V. J. Neal was sheriff and G. Labat, clerk. In January, ISO]. G. C. Wood was coroner, Allen Lewis was a juror in April, S. D. Magee was jailer, and C. C. Chaplin was elected district judge.

The Louisiana Democrat, of June 25, 1802, points out that E. E. Biossat was postmaster, H. M. Labat, Confederate war-tax collector; N. Davidson, president of police jury; J. N. Rhorer, clerk, and James Adkins, jailer. Two substitutes for persons subject to the conscription law were offered for $6,000.

There is no official record of the personnel or transactions of the jury until 1865, when new record books were opened, all the old ones having been destroyed in the fire of May. 13, 18(54. On June 5, 18(55, Col. J. H. Coates. of the Eleventh Illinois Infantry commanded at Rapides, with Capt. Boswick, provost-marshal. An order to all ex-Confederates and citizens to deliver up their arms, was issued June 5. The official appointments were Michael Ryan, district, judge; J. H. Cunningham, district attorney; J. A. Newell, clerk; J. R. Williams, sheriff: J. N. Rhorer, recorder, and J. C. Rogers, postmaster. Later L. D. Corley was commissioned assessor, and the following named police jurors were appointed; R. C. Hynson, Alexandria; G. M. Graham, Bayou Rapides; A. C. Lewis, Plaisance; Thomas Woodard, Cotile; J. B. Reeves, Lamourie; H. Carlin, Cheneyville, and William Thompson, Spring Hill. On June 21 Col. W. S. Mudgett, Eightieth United States Colored Infantry, commanded at Alexandria, while Gen. Custer had five regiments of cavalry here. J. E. Bailey was assistant assessor, and G. E. Bovee, deputy collector of internal revenue here. in July the town hall was turned over to the civil authorities; Lieut. Julius S. Clark and Second Lieut. A. V. Lovell, of the Eightieth Colored Infantry were appointed provosts of freedmen for Rapides and Avoyelles. On July 26 the jurors named above, except Graham, with C. V. Ledoux, of Pineville: P. Boggas of Rigolet; M. Paul, Jr., of Calcasieu, and Allen Lewis, of West's Ward, formed the jury. R. C. Hynson, presided; Frank E. Forbes, was clerk; John Clements, officer; E. R. Biossat, treasurer; E. V. Bringhurst, surveyor, find H. S. Losee, attorney. in September, 1865.

Abner N. Ogden, Jr., was appointed commissioner to hear testimony in the matter of records destroyed with the courthouse in May, 1864. In October, W. W. Whittington was appointed district clerk, vice Newell, resigned; A. J, McCranie was a member of the police jury at this time; V. B. Lewis was commissioned judge of the Ninth District in January, 1860, and A. N. Ogden, district attorney, rice Cunningham; P. Conlin was deputy United States assessor in April, 1866; A. J. Sypher was appointed sheriff by Gen. Phil Sheridan, in August, 1867, and in December, William Morris was appointed assessor, vice P. H. Cavanaugh, resigned; J. E. Andrews was tax collector, and in January, 1868, George V. Compton was commissioned sheriff.

The police jury in January, 1868, comprised D. D. Arden, president; C. L. Zimmerman, Allen Lewis, J. J. Myers, S. D. Williams, C. V. Boyce, J. H. Ransdell, N. Vidian; W. W. Whittington, Jr., was clerk. in February, C. V. Ledonx was appointed sheriff, vice Comptom who refused to take the test oath. In June, 1866, J. H. Ransdell was chosen president. At this time the question of building a courthouse was presented in July Messrs. Arden, Ransdell, Zimmerman and S. D. Williams, with the new jurors, H. M, Labat, V. P. Glascow, H. McKnight, H. B. Ferguson, A. Duffield and K. M. Clark, qualified as jurors. J. A. Crawford, was appointed clerk; Lossee, attorney, and E. E. Biossat, treasurer. In August, a number of citizens were taken to New Orleans, charged with crimes under the Civil Rights Bill. In 1897 J. J. Myers was juror, vice Duffield, deceased. In February, 1869, C. W. Boyce presided with T. J. Gill, C. L. Robinson, Moses Bowie. J. Fellows, C. M. Calvit, S. D. Williams, Jesse Clifton, L. C. Sweat and J. W. Martin, councilmen. The report on courthouse building was tendered by Thomas G. Manning, December 7, 1869, and he with J. C. Vise, William Mills, Joseph Fellows and J. G. White were appointed a building committee; a special tax levy of $10,000 was authorized.

The proposal of Bouillot and Mills to erect the building for $19,900 was accepted in May; but the opposition to giving the officials a chance to levy more taxes delayed the work. In June, 1870, the jury ordered an election on the question of granting aid to the Back-Bone Railroad Company, and ordered all injunction suits against the board of contractors in the matter of the courthouse to be defended. The railroad aid ordinance was shortly after recalled on July 18, by the jury. J. R. Andrews then president, with Bennett, Moore.

Robinson, Randolph, Sweat, Walker and Began formed the board; R. P. Hunter was attorney, and W. J. Calvit, clerk. In August the Supreme Court decided that the jurors appointed in 1871 were entitled to hold office, and they with J. N. Rhorer, president, assembled August 21, that year, Messrs, Bass, E. J. Barrett, J. Clifton and J. Clements were members at this time. J. M. Barrett succeeded E. E. Biossat as treasurer, and J. Mulcahy was clerk. In January, 1873, the jurors elected in November, 1872, took their places namely, J. A. Williams. president; K, M. Clark, J. P. Snellings, A. B. C. Dean and James R. Andrews; H. M. Labat, was chosen clerk; J, M. Barrett, treasurer, and V. W. Whittington, attorney.

The police jurors, elected in November, 1874, were James R. Andrews, Messrs. Dean, Williams, B. F. Lambright and J. H. Sorrell, each receiving 1,571 votes against 1,218 recorded for J. W. Osborn, Snelling, Clifton, William Kelsoe and Joseph Rhodes. In December the returning board counted out the members elect. John Osborn was district judge in 1875; H. L. Daigre, parish judge; W. C. McGimpsey, parish attorney; Levi Wells, district clerk; D. C. Paul, sheriff; W. H. Simons, recorder, and M. Legras, assessor. In February, 1876, J. H. Ransdell was clerk, succeeding Wells.

V. J. Calvit was juror in November, 1876, and in January, 1877, he as president, with G. V. Bolton, J. A. Calhoun, W. B. Smith and Thomas Woodward, qualified. J. W. Gordon was chosen clerk; James Moore, treasurer; W. C. McGimpsey, attorney; V. M. Thompson, physician, and V. E. Taylor, officer of the jury. At this time parish scrip sold for 50 cents per one dollar. In June, 1877, live additional jurors qualified under Act No, 57, namely: F. Seip, S. D. Williams. H. F. Long, B. C. Duke and G. Labat. Mr. Seip was chosen president. In January, 1879, the first freely elected jury since 1895 qualified; P. Seip presided, with E. Weil, B. Mayer, J. A. Dixon, S. D. Williams, J. W. Moore, G. W. Bolton, F. A. Blanchard, Isaac La Croix and C. J. Barstow members. M. Rosenthal was elected treasurer. In April, 1880, Benjamin Lewis, Gustavus Labat, Joseph H. Hynson (president), F. A. Blanchard, A. Heyman, J. L. Connella, J. A. Dixon, H. F. Long, R. Perkins and S. D. Williams were commissioned jurors. E. W. Halsey, at one time editor of the Democrat, was appointed governor's secretary, R. W. Bringhurst was commissioned surveyor, L. C. Sanford appointed clerk, and J. J. Neal officer. James P. Hickman and J. Y. Haythorn were jurors in November, 1881, and in January, 1882, Maj. Seip took (he place of J. H. Hynson. In July the names of J. W. Glass and George L. Wilson appear as jurors. In 1885 Messrs. Barstow, Blackwell, Griffin, James, Lawrence, Randolph, Swann, Thornton, Weerns and Thompson were members of the jury; J. R. Andrews, assessor, and L. C. Sauford, clerk. The tax levy for parish, bridge, judgment and school purposes, was placed at 10 mills. The jury, as organized July 2, 1888, comprise C. J. Barstow, president; C. M. Carruth, W. P. Flower, W. A. Griffin, Joseph Lawrence, J. J. Swann, J. V. Texada, Lewis Texada, E. V. Weems, and B. H. Randolph, clerk. Sanford and Officer Grogan were re-elected. S. Cullen was chosen treasurer and Dr. Casson physician. A. H. Butler was a member in 1889, vice Weems, and on Butler's death William Polk was appointed.

Joseph S. Johnson who settled at Alexandria in 1805 was elected representative to the first Territorial Legislature, where he sat until 1812, when he was appointed district judge. He took an active part against the English and raised a regiment to defend New Orleans. After the defeat of the British he returned to Alexandria, and served as judge until 1821, when he was elected congressman. In 1823 he was elected United States senator, re-elected in 1825 and 1831. On May 18, 1833, while en route to Natchitoches on the steamboat "Lioness," a quantity of powder exploded wrecking the boat at the mouth of the Bon Dieu, and causing the death of the Senator.

In the Constitutional Convention of 1812, E. Hall, Thomas F. Oliver and Levi Wells represented Rapides. William Dunbar represented the parish in the Legislature of 1839-40. In 1840 the election for representative was a tie between T. J. Wells and C. H. Blanchard, and was decided by the parish judge. Rapides was represented in the convention of 1845 by R. C. Hynson. James T. Brent and Joseph Walker. In 1850 Ralph Cushman, judge of the Thirteenth District; Charles S, Leckie, sheriff; James Stewart, coroner; M. R. Ariail, clerk, and Allen Tuck, recorder, were holding office as the measure of their successes at the polls. B. F. Sibley and I. P. Waddell were senatorial delegates, and A. J. Isaacs and W. W. Whittington representative delegates in the convention of 1852.

The Rapides election of November, 1859, shows 892 votes for T. O. Moore, and 612 for T. J. Wells candidates for governor. J. M. Landrum and M. A. Jones received the respective votes for Congress; J. C. Vise, R, M. Clark and E. E. Smart were elected representatives; V. J. Neal, sheriff; G. Labat, clerk; C. N. Hines, district attorney; J. J. Swann, assessor, and G. C. Wood, coroner. Dr. S. A. Smith was subsequently elected senator.

In January, 1861, John K. Elgee, Thomas C. Manning, V. W. Smart and Louis Texada were elected delegates to the State convention. They received 771 votes against 395 cast for their opponents. It was this Elgee who reported from the committee on the adoption of the Confederate flag, and he it was who was foremost in demanding the disruption of the Union in that historical convention of January, 1861.

In the State convention of 1864 the representatives of Rapides were M. E. Ariail, A. Cazabat, J. A. Newell and Thomas M. Wells, while in 1868 J. L. Barrett and George H. Kelsoe represented the parish. In the convention of 1879 George W. Bolton and Robert E. Luckett were representative delegates.

Thomas O. Moore, of this parish, was governor from 1860 to 1804, except for that period in 1802 when Brig.-Gen. G. F. Shepley was military governor. James M. Wells, also of this parish, was acting governor from 1864 to 1866 and governor from 1866 to 1868.

Charles V. Boyce was temporary president of the Senate in 1864. Aristide Barbin was secretary of the Senate in 1858-59 and Henry B. Kelly, 1805-07. Robert A. Hunter was elected State treasurer in 1855 and served until 1860. Louis Bordelon was elected auditor in 1850 and served until 1855. Henry A. Bullard was appointed justice of the Supreme Court in 1832 and served until 1845; William Dunbar served in 1852-53; Cornelius Voorhies. 1854 59; A. N. Ogden, 1854-55; Thomas C. Manning, 1803-64, 1873-80 and 1882-86; Felix P. Poche, 1880-90, and William P. Hyman, 1865-68.

The elections of November, 1865, show 409 votes for H. V. Allen and 258 for J. M. Wells, candidates for governor: G. M. Graham received 276 and J. G. Pratt 2(55 for Congress; John Kelsoe, 411), A. D. Coco, 314 and M. Ryan. 224, for senator, and J. T. Hatch, Henry Boyce and E. T. Lewis were elected representatives. Pardons were issued about this time to Judge T. C. Manning, Chief Justice Merrick, Lewis Texada and Senator Semmes by the President.

In May, 1866, V. L. Sanford was elected representative; J. F. Smith, district attorney; J. E. Andrews, sheriff; John V. Hickman, district clerk; J. W. Moore, recorder; J. M. Cavanaugh, assessor, and G. C. Wood, coroner. Maj. Willaner, superintendent of the Freedman's Bureau in 1860-67 resigned in November, 1867.

In May, 1868, the delegates to the New Orleans Convention, were A. J. Sypher, A. P. Wild and William Gottschalk, all non-residents. George Y. Kelsoe, Harry Lott and V. Crawford (all Colored), were representatives of the parish. Judge Ryan was elected member of Congress in November, 1868, defeating Newsham by a large, majority, but the latter was given the seat.

The elections of November, 1870, show 1,180 votes for James Ryan (D.), and 1890 for James McCleery (R.), candidates for Congress; 1,310 votes for Harry Lott, J. B. Lott and William Crawford (Col. Rep.), and 1,163 for William A. Seay, D. C. Paul and G. W. Stafford (D.) for representatives: John Kelsoe (D.), 1,702, and A. J. Whittier (E.), 1,306 for parish judge; John De Lacey (E.), 1,906, and C. E. Haworth (D.), 1,150 for sheriff. Judge Kelsoe was re-elected, the only Democrat upon whom success attended.

In November, 1872, E. C. Davidson, Samuel Peters and J. Madison Wells were candidates for Congress; when the first received 1,928 votes, the second 976, and the third 228 in this parish. For the short term A. Boarman received 1,963 and Harry Lott, (Col.), 1,161. William A. Seay and John Osborn received similar votes for district judge; M. J. Cunningham and N. A. Robinson, for attorney: James G. White and George Y. Kelsoe. for senator; Louis Texada, J. J. Swann and J. G, P. Hooe, defeated Joseph Conaughton (Col.), Henry Worthy (Col.),and John Mayon (Col.) for representatives; Henry L. Daigre, defeated C. W. Ledoux for parish judge; Sosthene A. Baillio, defeated William Hustmeyor for district clerk; D. C. Paul, defeated De Lacey for sheriff; V. H. Simons, defeated W. V, Porter for recorder, and Giles C. Wood, defeated V. H. Shadburn for coroner, the votes being 1,960 (D.), and 1,158 (R.). All who were not elected were counted in, find fill who were elected, counted out.

The elections of 1874 show 1,546 votes for W. M. Levy, and 1,233 for George L. Smith, candidates tor Congress; George W. Stafford, James Jeffries and R. L. Luckett were elected representatives; H. L. Daigre, parish judge; D. C. Paul, sheriff, and Nelson Taylor, coroner. United States troops were present at every polling place. All were counted out except Judge Daigre.

The elections of 1876 show 1,025 votes for W. A. Strong, and 1,752 for E. Honore, candidates for secretary of State; 1,454 for W. F. Blackman, and 1,876 for R. A. Hunter, district judge; 1,446 for E. G. Hunter, and 1888 for James Andrews, district attorney; 1,584 for Louis Texada, and 1,710 for G. Y. Kelsoe, senator; 1,643 for K. M. Clark, James Jeffries and G. W. Stafford, and 1.833 for V. J. De Lacey (Colored), E. J. Barrett and Baptiste Drew; 1,379 for W. W. Whittington, and 1,935 for John Clements, parish judge; 1,620 for D. C. Paul, and 1,090 for H. M. Robinson, sheriff; 1,293 for J. G. P. Hooe, and 1,856 for J. *James Andrews was nominated and voted for contrary to his wishes. He refused to accept the commission.

H. Ransdell, clerk; 1,592 for Mires Rosenthal, and 1,725 for V. W. Porter, recorder; 1,510 for Isaac Roberts, and 1,720 for W. H. Shadburn, coroner. In September, 1876, George L. Smith was declared congressman. In 1878 J. B. Elam was elected congressman; James C. Vise and James Jeffries were chosen representatives; J. R. Thornon, parish judge, and I. C. Robert, coroner. In December. 1879, Will A. Strong received a majority vote for Secretary of State; W. F. Blackman was elected judge of the district; Edwin G. Hunter, attorney; E. L. Luckett, senator; James C. Wise and J. F. Hathaway, representatives; D. C. Paul, sheriff; George O. Watts, clerk, and Dr. John Casson, coroner.

In January, 1880, the contest in the matter of the election of judge of the Twelfth District, was disposed of by the Supreme Court, Aristide Barbin being declared entitled to the office, and W. F. Blackman not entitled thereto. In November, 1880, Thomas C. Manning was appointed United States Senator, vice Spofford, deceased, but for political reasons was denied his seat in the senate. Later he was appointed minister to Mexico.

The election of April, 1888, shows 4,(550 Democratic, and 625 Republican votes. W. F. Blackman and A. V. Coco were elected district judges, defeating E. N. Cullom and H. L. Daigre. James Andrews was elected district attorney; F. Seip, senator; S. F. Meeker and G. W. Bolton, representatives; D. T. Stafford, sheriff, George O. Watts, clerk, and John Casson, coroner.

The vote cast in 1876 for governor, shows 1,649 for Nicholls (D.), and 1,729 for Packard (R.). In 1879 the figures change materially, Wiltz (D.), receiving 1,941, and Beattie (R.), 899. In 1884 there were 1,708 votes cast for McEnery (D.), and 1,157 tor Stevenson (R.). While in 1888, Nicholls (D.), received 4,078, and Warmoth (R.), 449. The registered voters in April, 1888, numbered 7,309, 4,893 being Caucasians. There were 053 White, and 2,180 Colored voters, who could not write their names.

On June 13, 1868, a meeting of the bar of Rapides, presided over by Michael Ryan, adopted resolutions on the death of Judge W. B. Lewis. The signers were M. Ryan, R. A. Hunter, E. C. Leckie. H S. Losee, James G. White, J. W. Hickman, and W. W. Whittington. Major Canfield died in February, 1867. Judge Osborn was appointed to succeed him. In November, 1869, Judge Osborn opened court with a Negro grand jury. Larkin D. Corley, of Banks Legislature fame, being the only White member. Judge Ryan protested against this iniquity, but the judge, Osborn, decided in favor of the jury. The White, lawyers and litigants left court in a  body. On the death of Parish Judge Kelsoe, H. L. Daigre was appointed, and in the fall of 1872 sought election. From January, 1868, to January, 1875, there were fifty-seven murders in Rapides, forty Negroes and seventeen Caucasians. Lynch law was first applied in this parish February 23, 1877. One Cage stole a horse of Major George, O. Watts, The owner gave chase, came up with the thief on Gov. Moore's upper plantation, but instead of surrendering, Cage wounded the Major and fled. Next morning the people started in pursuit, captured him at the Lodi sugar-house, and he was taken to the jail. That night the jailer, C. M. Calvit, was overpowered, and Cage abducted and hanged below the town.

Samuel Travis or Samuel Fled, a Colored man, was hanged July 8, 1.881. He murdered A. J. Hanna, a merchant, below Alexandria, October 20, 1879. was found guilty in February, 1880, and the sentence was signed by the governor June 24, 1881. Nineteen years before, in 1802, a public execution took place here. A Negro by the name of William Brooks was hung at Alexandria, May 2, 1884, for the murder of his wife. Quite a gathering witnessed the hanging, among them being a number of Negroes from Grant Parish. As usual, Brooks professed to be confident that he was going straight from the gallows to heaven. He confessed the crime for which he was hung.

The present bar comprises R. J. Bowman, James G. White, R. P. Hunter, V. W. Whittington, Jr., James Andrews, H. L. Daigre, E. G. Hunter, J. P. Thornton, J. C. Ryan, M. C. Moseley, J. F. Ariail, H. H. White, A. J. Camaok, L. L. Hooe and Louis J. Hakenyos. C. L. Ransdell has served as deputy district clerk since June, 1870. In June, 1888, W. French was commissioned office deputy.

The Planters Intelligencer, Vol. IX, No. 40, was issued at Alexandria November 19, 1830 (thus pointing out its beginning late in 1827), by R. Smith. The annual subscription was $6. At that time Edward C. Leckie was deputy clerk; John H. Johnson, parish judge of Rapides; M. Walsh & Co. were merchants at Alexandria; S. E. Gunning and V. T. Crain were merchants, but on the latter's death, in 1836, Mackay & Amelung succeeded them; A. L. Barrow was lumber dealer; S. S. Carew presided over the academy; E. C. Martin kept a general store; the Carrolton Branch Batik was in existence at Hydropolis, Avoyelles Parish; Francois Gaiennie was elector on the Whig and Gen. P. E. Bossier on the Democratic tickets; E. H. Flint & Go. were dealers in wagons; Sand ford & Page, book dealers; V. K. English, grocers; Normand & Boult, hardware dealers; M. Mahony, J. A. Crawford, Henry, E. C. Barry & Co., merchant tailors; J. L. Crain & E. A. Hunter had just ceased business; the office of the Discount and Deposit bank of the N. O. Gaslight & Banking Company was presided over by Cashier W. E. Leckie; the Washington Tavern was kept by R. G. Leckie; J. M. Gordon purchased Walsh & Co.'s stock in November and opened his store; D. C. Goodwyn was deputy sheriff and itinerant Methodist preacher; J. B. Scott, clerk of probate and L. M. Shepherd, auctioneer. A few copies of this ancient journal were found at Mr. Hynson's house, known as Kent plantation.

Alexandria Gazette, Vol. V, No. 52, is dated January 12, 1833. (It was first issued in January, 1828.) R. Smith & J. D. McCoy were publishers; the act of March 16, chartering the Alexandria & Cheneyville Railroad appears in this issue. Stephen Rossean was then cashier of the Union Bank of Avoyelles; Baldwin & Dunlap carried on the Rapides Academy; the stores of Slocum & Co., J. B. Calland, Anderson & David, the Eagle Hotel of S. E. Bell, the grocery of Lowe & Co., the general store of M. Walshe, the dentistry office of S. Edgerton at Culberson's hotel, and Mrs. E. B. Biscamp's millinery were well known institutions at this time. Mrs. Cooper, a daughter of J. D. McCoy, still residing on Bayou Boeuf, holds a few of the first copies of the Gazette.

The Red River Republican was established in 1838 as the first Democratic organ of Rapides. Louis Zimm, who died in January, 1875, came here to take charge. in 1845, when the Western Democrat was founded, Zimm turned himself and his journal over to the Whigs and continued to espouse the Whig platform until 1853, when he left Alexandria. He died in January, 1875. Vol. XII, No. 26, of the Republican is dated May 25, 1850. The Red River Whig was established in 1839, by John H. Ransdell to combat the teachings of Louis Zimm. The editor became a local politician in later years, and his name occurs often in the pages devoted to the transactions of the police jury. He died in November, 1809.

The Western Democrat, Vol. V, No. 50, was issued by Martin C. Smith, Juno 5, 1850. At this time A. McNutt was police juror from Bayou Rapides and favored the levee project. L. Bailey presided over the jury; M. R. Ariail was district clerk; William Grove's School, Rev. Elijah Guion's Female Academy, and Pine Grove Academy or Digges Academy of J. V. Ricks were in existence. It was issued first in June, 1845, by David Martin, a printer, poet, scholar and good judge of whisky. To him is credited the old song  Erin is my Home. It was edited in 1859-60 by E. V. Halsey and published by T. H. Bradley. In 1864 E. E. Biossat purchased the office.

At this time A. B. Rachal, who has since been connected with the paper entered the office. The Pictorial Democrat, printed on wall paper, was issued April 8, 1863. Admiral Farragut was at the mouth of Red River at this time. E. E. Biossat was editor. The first number of the Louisiana Democrat issued after the war is dated June 14, 1865. It was given Tip to military orders. E. E. & E. A. Biossat were proprietors of the Democrat up to the close of 1872. In 1875 Mr. Rachal, who entered the office in 1863, took the place of B. A. Biossat as publisher. In October, 1880, James R. Waters became editor and Henry L. Biossat, publisher. Eugene E. Biossat, the veteran editor, died in January, 1881. His mother, who settled at Alexandria in 1817, died there in 1867.

In the fall of 1858 T. G. Compton, one time assistant editor of the Red River American (C. W. Boyce's journal), established the Reporter at Alexandria. The Constitutional, Vol. I, No. 1, was issued at Alexandria August 4, 1860, by C. V. Boyce and Benjamin Turner.

The Southern Sentinel, Vol. I, dated June 20, 1863, is printed on wall paper. The issue of September 20 of that year is also printed on a poor class of wall paper, one page of closely printed matter telling the necessities of war times. T. G. Compton was editor, and the present Mayor Crawley foreman. The price was §8 per annum in Confederate, Louisiana or Rapides scrip only. William J. Neal was sheriff and J. A. Calvitt deputy. A notice of the death of many slaves engaged in the building of Fort De Russy is given, and au advertisement for twenty Negro men to work in the Seminary Hospital was inserted by J. S. Fish, surgeon of Taylor Hospital. The Democrat of this period was also printed on wall paper. The Rapides Tribune was issued October 3, 1868, by V. F. McLean. On the 15th of that mouth the office was demolished and the material cast into Red River. He purchased a new outfit and returned to Alexandria on November 15, when the office was again destroyed. McLean was stoned, Judge Osburn's dwelling was damaged, and he and Parish Judge Barlow, both elected in April, 1868, on the Republican ticket, were subjected to abuse; C. W. Boyce, formerly president pro tern, of the Senate, was beaten, and other citizens assaulted.

The Alexandria Gazette (new) was established in 1869. The Caucasian was issued March 27, 1874, by G. V. Stafford, E. P. Hunter and V. F . Blackman. On March 20, 1875, the Valedictory appeared. The journal, as its name denotes, was purely a White man's journal to its close. We, The People, was established at Alexandria in 1879, Frank Connelly being editor. This was a most aggressive newspaper, generally correct in its denunciations, but so often erroneous in statement, that it was forced to surrender to an older and more conservative paper.

The Daily Town Talk was established March 17. 1883, by E. H. McCormick and Henarie M. Huie. This was continued as a morning newspaper until January, 1885, when the daily issue ceased, and a tri-weekly issue was instituted. In January, 1880, the tri-weekly ceased, and the Weekly Town Talk (established in December, 1884) was left to hold the field. In 1888 Mr. Huie retired from the firm, selling his interest to R. C. Jarrean and Miss Laura Huie. They, with Mr. McCormick, are the present owners of this journal. The circulation is 1 ,300, and the office gives employment to six men. The present office building was erected in 1887-88. Within it is the first steam printing outfit introduced into Central Louisiana, and from this office the first, eight page paper was issued in Central Louisiana. The Headlight, of Boyce, Rapides, was established in 1887, by J. S. Van Ingen and John V. Rhorer. The rays from this journal did not flash across the world, and even in Northern Rapides it failed to enlighten the people on their duties toward the local newspaper.

The Alexandria Daily Times was issued in September, 1890, by the Times Publishing Company. Col. E. B. Wheelock, general agent of the Texas & Pacific Railway, is president; Col. A. D. Battle, the veteran editor of Shreveport, is editor in chief; Guy Armstrong, who graduated out of the Picayune's news department, is city and news editor, and T. N. Miles is business manager. The office building was erected specially for publishing purposes. The mechanics employed on this building were all Colored tradesmen of New Orleans. The Vidette was issued in October, 1890, as the official journal of the Farmers' Alliance. Messrs. A. D. Lafargue and J. A. Tetts were the editors. The number of White pupils enrolled in Rapides in 1877, was 507; in 1878, 1,093; in 1879, 920; in 1880, 236; in 1881, 1,073; in 1884, 997; in 1885, 1,314; in 1886, 1,028; in 1887, 1,314.

The Colored enrollment for the same years was 351, 678, 555, 108, 458, 453, 598, 525 and 680, In 1889 there were 3,887 White children of school age, and 4,605 Colored children, while in 1890 the respective numbers were 4,212 and 4,915. The attendance, however, is very limited. The school board for 1890 comprises Jonas Rosenthal, president; N. L. McGinnis, C. M. Shaw, T. S. Smith. Samuel Blum. James P. Hickman. H. F. Long, N. L. Hathorn and L. B. Baynard. In July of this year the members considered the Legislative act of 1890, which donated the building, known as the Charity Hospital at Alexandria, to the State Board of Education for educational purposes, and resolved that the State board should be petitioned to turn it over to the parish board for similar purposes. The Rapides Teachers' Association was organized in September, 1890, with John V. Brill, president. M. P. Erwin, vice-president, and John P. McGee, secretary.

The physicians who registered under the act of 1882, and placed their diplomas on record, are named as follows: John Casson, Francis W. Marshall, John A. Dunn, Stephen H. Bushing, David H. Tucker, Julius A. Johnston, William L. Van Horn, James E. Keator, Hiram D. Cooper, Samuel F. Meeker, James A. Cruikshank, George E. French, Samuel T. Birdsong, Smith Gordon, Edward B. Price, Charles T. Radcliff, Jesse E. Collins, Americus Cockerille. Ralph Kilpatrick, Henry F. Myers, Thomas V. Compton, James E. Coats, James T. Phillips, Ira Bowman, Robert L. Luckett, James S. Fish, James T. Keator, and Allen Patrick. Messrs. Gibson Myers, James H. So Relle and James H. Postorn registered as physicians of long practice.

The Rapides Agricultural Fair Association was incorporated June 28, 1873, with power to consolidate with the Rapides Jockey Club. There were forty-six members. Drs. E. L. Luckett, E. A. Cockerille, with J. C. French, Julius Levin, M. Heyman, E. M. Wells, W. F. Blackman, W. V. Whittington, Jr., and J. S. Butler were elected directors.

The first grange in the parish was organized in April, 1874, with J. H. Hynson, T. S. Smith, J. W. Prescott. E. M. Wells, J. C. French, F. Seip, Joseph Fellows, D. V. Hynson, Mrs. Fannie M. Wells, Mrs. Kate Hynson, Miss Nellie Fellows and Mrs. Clara Flowers, filling the respective offices. The Rapides Parish Farmers' Union elected the following-named officers in July, 1887: John J. Swann, president; Z. P. Squires, vice-president; D. B. Hogan, treasurer: John A. Dixon, secretary: Linn Tanner, lecturer; P. A. Swann, chaplain: Harper, doorkeeper, and V. L. Tanner, sergeant at arms. From the very beginning of settlement the people of Rapides have been represented in war.

Away back in 1730 or 1731, the very few inhabitants fled before the Indians to seek refuge at, Natchitoches. There the men entered the ranks of St. Denys, and conquered the Indians, On the western line, in after years, they pushed forward their cotton fields to stay the advance of the Mexican and so on up to 1815, when Sprigg, Hooper and others went down to New Orleans to aid in defeating the British. Only in 1879 did a widow of one of the veterans of 1812 die here, Marcia, the widow of John Carnahan. In the Mexican War, E. A. Hunter was adjutant in Col. Marks' regiment, and other citizens served in the ranks. The Civil War brought into the field every man capable of bearing arms. Prom April, 1861, to the surrender of Appomattox, and indeed to a later period, Louisianans were in the field. Even when the superior officers of the Western Confederate Army agreed to surrender at Shreveport, the measure was condemned by the men, and many regiments declared their resolution to fight until the last man fell.

In December, 1860, the Fulton Guards were organized at Alexandria with John Kelsoe, captain; M. A. Grogan, first, and V. S. Ridge, second lieutenant; J. M. Martin, R. C. Heatherwick, L. A. Cameron and J. V. Osburn, sergeants; B. J. Hartiens, V. G. Lloyd, B. Bogan and William H. Rogers, corporals. Col. Fulton presided over the meeting to organize; James De Lahunty was secretary, and Rosemond Legras, treasurer. The Moore Guards, under Capt. Kelsoe, left for the front in April, 1861.

The Rapides Minute Company was organized at Lamothe's Bridge December 12, 1860, with J. V. Texada, captain; A. M. Gordon and C. R. Hayworth, lieutenants; J. G. Bledsoe, F. Gremillion and C. Innis, sergeants; E. Cruikshank, P. M. Duffel, J. A. Fray and A. Vandegaer, corporals; Moses Rosenthal, ensign and Dr. L. Magruder, surgeon.

The war meeting of April 23, 1861, was presided over by Gen. Montford Wells, with C. N. Hines. secretary. Messrs. Ryan, Manning, Canfield and Kelsoe were orators, and M. Walshe, H. Robertson, L. Texada, K. M. Clark and M. Ryan, the members of a committee to procure quarters for men who come into town to enlist. Capt. S. A. Smith, M. D., organized a company in May, 1861 James C. Vise. J. V. Texada and Thomas C. Manning were lieutenants; R. S. Jackson, Dr. A. V. Davis, W. K. Johnson and J. C. Grimes, sergeants; Neal Davidson, Jr. .George W. Stafford, Ben B. Burgess and B. Weiss, corporals, and A. Cazabat, ensign. This was the second company organized for the war in Rapides Parish, but disbanding May 20, the greater number of members joined the Rapides Invincibles. The Rapides Volunteers (Invincibles) organized May 21, 1861, with Lee Crandall, captain; Henry Huie, A. W. Davis and W. K. Johnson, lieutenants and E. S. Jackson, first sergeant.

The Alexandria Independent Cavalry was organized in January, 1861, with J. S. Severns, captain; J. C. Wise and John Bogan, lieutenants. In February the title Southern Guards was given to the command. The Moore Guards were organized and Sergt. E. M. Kilpatrick was commissioned major of the Rapides Regiment of Militia. On May 25, 1861, a military company (The Home Guards) was organized with John P. Eddieman, captain; G. A. Smith, J. T. Hewett and J. S. Duncan, lieutenants; E. M. Calcote, J. A. Clifton, William Roberts and A. F. Jones, sergeants; Charles K. Oakes, H. Johnson, J. M. Lacy and F. M. Miller, corporals. The total strength was ninety-six.

The Cheneyville Riflemen, the third company organized in Rapides for the war, elected the following named officers in June, 1861 P. F. Keary, captain; John Burgess, W. H. Oliver and John R. Murphy, lieutenants; and Samuel Roberts, first sergeant. The Cheneyville Home Guards and the riflemen were presented with flags by the ladies of the town.

Kirby Smith writing from Alexandria. La., to Richmond, April 25, 1863, says: he Federal Army under Gen. Banks is within one day's march of Alexandria. Gen. Taylor is falling back toward Natchitoches. The Red River below Alexandria will soon be in possession of the enemy. Writing from Shreveport, July 10, he refers to his arrangements with Maj.-Gen. Taylor to concentrate the Louisiana troops opposite Vicksburg.

Gen. N. P. Banks reporting to Gen. Grant from Alexandria, May 12, 1803, says: We believe that a force of about 7,000 of the enemy has left Arkansas River to join Kirby Smith at Shreveport, and intend to come down to Grand Ecore, above Natchitoches, where a strong position is being fortified. There is undoubtedly a Texan Column on the road to join them. My advance is now sixty miles above Alexandria. The only course for me, failing to co-operate with you, is to regain the Mississippi, and attack Port Hudson, or move against the enemy at Shreveport.

The invasion of Red River Valley by the Federal troops under Banks is referred to in the history of De Soto and other northern parishes. At the close of February, 1864, Moutons brigade was at Alexandria, De Polignac's at Trinity, Walker's division at Marksville, with eight heavy guns, two field pieces and a section of Vincent's horse in and around the unfinished Fort De Russy; Harrison's mounted regiment near Monroe. On March 12, 1864, Adm. Porter's nineteen gunboats entered the Red River and 10,000 Federals entered the valley. At Simmsport the troops debarked on the 13th; on the 14th, under Gen. A. J. Smith, they captured Fort De Russy, killing and wounding ten members of the garrison, while the rifle pits below were taken by Federals from the gunboats, under Phelps. On March 15, 1804, Porter's advance boats appeared before Alexandria, where one grounded on the falls and was burned. Shortly afterward the general advance was made and transports and gunboats moved up the river, keeping pace with the troops up the valley. Banks going up was a very different man from Banks going down.

His splendid army was beaten at Mansfield and Pleasant Hill. Since their passage going up the river had fallen, and on getting back to the falls on their retreat it was found that there was not sufficient water to admit the gunboats and transports, and there was danger of capture by the Confederates in pursuit. In this dilemma an engineer connected with the fleet, by the name of Bailey, constructed a dam of rocks and earth in the nature of a jetty at the lower falls, just above the town of Alexandria, and on the opposite side of the river. This confined the waters and raised the river at that point sufficient to admit, the passage of the fleet, and thus saved it. The burning of Alexandria on May 13, 1864, is generally attributed to the Federals, but there are citizens there today who relieve Gen. Banks of all responsibility and point to his great effort to save the town. There are others who claim that a few men of Gen. Smith's command were the real incendiaries, while others maintain that the incendiaries were natives and burned with an object. Whoever is guilty, the crime of destroying twenty-three blocks or squares of a young city, was a most dastardly one.

Alexandria, in latitude 31° 18' north and in longitude 15° 22' west, is located on the Red River, at the mouth of Bayou Rapides, eighty feet above sea level. It is distant from New Orleans 190 miles by railroad and 350 miles by river, and from Shreveport. 130 miles by railroad and 350 miles by river. The population is about 3,000. The site is a beautiful one. Though almost level as a floor, its streets are never disagreeably muddy nor are there standing pools of water to generate disease. The soil is sandy and rapidly absorbs rainfall. Westward it is ten miles to the hills and thence to the Sabine River are magnificent pineries, while the soil is productive and adapted to the raising of grain, vegetables and cotton. Immediately opposite, or on the right bank of the Red River, is the village of Pineville.

Alexander Fulton, who platted Alexandria, was the first, merchant. He was followed by John Casson in 1812 Martineau & Landroau opened their store; then the stores of L. Levesques. M. Labat, find Antoine Biossat were established. The two latter came with Rochambeau and took part in the Revolution. Isaac McNutt, William Wilson, Charles T. Scott and J. H. Johnson were old-time lawyers. Hypolite Beauboeuf, who died in September, 1879, came from France to Alexandria in 1820 with letters to Commandant Archinard. He entered the store of Landreaux & Martin and later that of Laferiere Levesques, but afterward became a planter and resided on his lands until his death. Thomas H. Hooper came in 1810, was one of Capt. S. W. Gordan's company fit, New Orleans in 1815, married the widow of Alexander Fulton a few years later, and settled down in the Pine Hills.

Horatio S. Sprigg was here before the battle of New Orleans, but returned to Alexandria after the battle and with Archie P. Williams and George Y. Kelsoe, became the owners of great properties. In 1828 he was elected general of the militia. F. R. Amsden, who in 1839 settled here and was assessor for ten years, died in August, 1880. William Mills, known as the old governor, died in December, 1880. Pleasant Hunter and family settled at Alexandria prior to 1820. Robert A. Hunter, who was brought here in infancy, died in July, 1889, after a residence of sixty-nine years. In 1858 he was State treasurer; twelve years before this he was adjutant, in Col. Mark's regiment (Mexican); was United States marshal at the be ginning of the war, and was among the first to volunteer for service in the Confederate Army.

Robert C. Hynson, who died October 4, 1875. settled at Alexandria in November, 1818, as clerk for Bryant & Martin, then the leading merchants. In 1821 the firm of Wright, & Hynson was formed. Maj. Wright was killed by James Bowie in the "Sand Bar Fight " in 1827, and Hynson continued the business until its settlement, in 1828, when he took John B. Heno's place as cashier of the Bank of Louisiana here. On the removal of the bank from Alexandria in 1840, the deceased retired to Kent plantation. The Alexandria Library Society was chartered in 1824. The Alexandria Amateur Thespian Society played "She Stoops to Conquer" November 17, 1830 Messrs. Shepherd, Gordon, Brown, Mackay, Dr. Crawford, Curtis, Brewer, Wilmoth, C. Leckie, Boniole, Boult, Bringhurst. Bryoe and Wood being the actors.

In May, 1853, David Martin was proprietor of the Western Democrat; L. F. Parker was principal of the Boys' Institute in the Pine Woods; D. C. Goodwyn was secretary of Rapides Lodge, I. O. O. F., No. 35, with rooms in Judge Ariails' ice house; E. & J. C. Johnson and S. K. Johnson were druggists; E. E. Biossat was proprietor of the Alexandria House; John Bogan of the Washington, and A. M. Hollowed of the Missouri House; Charles H. Flower was captain and J. C. Wise, sergeant of the cavalry company; Henry B. Kelly and Ralph Cushman were candidates for district judge, with A. J. Isaacs and J. H. C. Barlow in the field for district attorney.

R. Legras was mayor in June 1800. Relief Fire Company No. 1 and Hope Company No. 2 were active organizations at this time. In January, 1861, the following councilmen were elected: M. R. Ariail, H. Robertson, R. C. Hetherwick, W. B. Hyman and G. V. Barrett; I. T. Jewett was treasurer; John Clements, constable, collector and wharfinger; C. V. Boyce, printer, and A. Cazabat, secretary. In August, 1865, Gov. Wells appointed John Frazer, mayor; Jacob Irving, Jacob Walker, Isaac Levy, E. B. Price and E. E. Biossat, councilmen. In December H. S. Losee and Joseph Fellows were appointed additional councilmen. The names marked above thus were elected in January, 1866, with John Bogan and James D. Osborn, councilmen, and H. S. Losee, mayor. In July, 1867, the first town tax since 1857 was levied. It amounted only to $1,600. Eugene E. Biossat was mayor at this time. In January, 1867, he, with Jacob Walker, V. O. Damon, Joseph Fellows, Julius Levin and Eduard Well formed the council. The elections of April, 1868, resulted in the return of Mayor Biossat. Joseph Fellows, W. S. Ridge, J. V. Osborn, Patrick Kelly and B. Glatt were elected councilmen, by 326 votes against 50 votes cast for the Republican nominees.

On September 29, 1868, an act incorporating the town of Alexandria and repealing all older acts was approved, under this act. J. W. Osborn was elected mayor; I, J. Howard, E. E. Biossat, Julius Levin, I. C. Miller and S. J. Johnson, councilmen; John C. Rogers, treasurer, and V. J. Rogers, controller, in January, 1869. W. F. McLean was appointed mayor by Warmoth, but refused to act until November 15, 1868, when the riot took place, and scared him out of municipal life. John M. Barrett was clerk in 1869-70. In January, 1871, R. M. Kilpatrick was nominated for mayor; B. C. Duke, treasurer; J. M. Barrett, controller; L. Gossens. with Messrs. Biossat, Levin, White and Johnson, councilmen. In January of this year the Stonewall Hook & Ladder Company was organized, and Thomas Crawley was tire marshal. January, 1873, R. L. Fox was chosen mayor, and A. L. Hilton, clerk. Edonard Weil was elected mayor in 1875, with B. C. Duke, treasurer; A. Hilton, controller; James Bouillotte, E. R. Biossat, M. Rosenthal, M. Legras and W. W.W. Wittington, Jr., councilmen, and Thomas Crawley, marshal. D. C. Paul was mayor in 1877-78, with Messrs. Bouillotte, Biossat, Rosenthal, Whittington and Jacob Irving, councilmen. W. W. Whittington served as mayor for a short time. Samuel Fellows was chosen mayor in 1879, and A. B. Rachal, controller, with Louis Gossens, E. E. Biossat, Jonas Rosenthal, Dennis Kelly and V. V. Whittington, councilmen. James Andrews, Jr., was elected mayor in 1881, while N. L. McGinnis and V. O. Damon, with three members of the old board, were elected councilmen.

In 1882 the town charter was repealed and the city charter granted. V. C. McGimsey was mayor in November, of this year. He was reelected in January, 1883, with A. B. Rachel, comptroller, and B. C. Duke, treasurer. H. S. Gossens. J. J. Peterman, N. L. McGinnis, Jacob Irving and J. Rosenthal were elected councilmen. William Leckie was a member in August, vice Irving. The plank road ordinance was considered at this time. In January, 1885, Thomas Crawley, was commissioned mayor; E. Weil, J. F. Garner, L. B. Baynard, D. Kelly and J . Rosenthal, councilmen. The mayor and J. Rosenthal were re-elected in 1887. H. S. Gossens, E. J. Sullivan. N. L. McGinnis and Jacob Irvine being the new members. In October of this year, the 5 mill tax in aid of the Little Rook & Arkansas Railroad was adopted by 148 votes, representing $228,099. Joseph Fellows, Julius A. Johnson and E. W. Bringhurst were elected councilmen in 1889. H. M. Huie was chosen marshal and collector, and G. M. Ratcliffe succeeded A. B. Rachal as secretary, who served for the previous decade. The present council comprises the three last, councilmen named, with Messrs. Gossens and Irving. Mayor Crawley, presiding. In June, 1889, Judge Blackmail held that the city was indebted to the Southern Artesian Veil Company, in the sum of $1,500. Their contract was to sink an artesian well, which would give a natural flow of at least 15,01)0 gallons per day, or a pumping capacity of 30,000 gallons for the sum named, and this the company carried out, but Mayor Crawley hesitated to sign city warrants authorized by the council, hence the suit. In the fall of 1890, Assessor Williams reported that the total amount of assessments for this year were $48,818.20; last year $42,250, showing an increase of $6,568.20. The taxes were this year $2,881.82; last year $2,535.18, showing au increase of $1,355.04. The amount derivable from licenses for the year is $3,000; while the city taxes amount to $0,000.

T. G. Compton was postmaster in 1840-41; Louis Zimrn, the printer, was postmaster from 1845 to 1853; E. E. Biossat was postmaster in 1801. In June, 1865, J. C. Rogers was recommended for postmaster; but in September, Levi Wells, a son of Gov. Wells, was appointed. Rev. Thomas S. Bacon was postmaster in September, 1866, when the office was reopened by the United States, and he retained the position until appointed agent of the Freedman's Bureau for Winn Parish. In June, 1875, John De Lacey was commissioned master. In 1880 Connelly was appointed, but in January, 1881, De Lacey was reinstated. In 1889 E. J. Barrett succeeded Col. Thomas P. French, as postmaster.

In 1818 John Casson donated to what was known in 1800 as District No. 4 a square of land in the Casson Addition to the town of Alexandria. Two years later a large brick building was erected thereon, called the College of Rapides, the State and individuals contributing moneys to the extent of $20,000 toward its erection. The building was a ruin in 1860.

The State Seminary was founded in 1855, on grants of land made by the State, from 1800 to 1827, for seminary purposes. This school was opened January 2, 1860, with Col. W. T. Sherman, superintendent. In April, 1861, Col. Sherman resigned his position as president of the college, and Col. George V. Lay took his place. Sherman confessed, at Judge Ryan's house, that be could not reside in a State which opposed the Union. Col. Lay resigned in May, together with Maj. F. V. Smith, leaving Profs. Vallas, Boyd and St. Ange in charge. Later Capt. Boggs was appointed superintendent; but. on June 30, that year, the building was closed to students, and not reopened until April 1, 1862 when Col. William E. M. Linfield took charge. In April, 1803, Prof. William A. Seay, succeeded Col. Linfield, but on the 23rd of that month the seminary was closed, owing to the advance of the Federals under Banks. During the session of 1863 there were 112 cadets enrolled. Rev. J. T. Bellier was professor of ancient languages until his death, in 1869. During the war the building was gutted by fire, but early in 1865 was restored, and reopened October 2 that year. On October 20, 1869, the building was burned, entailing a loss of $135,000. In later years the whole enterprise collapsed, but now an effort is being made to have the seminary or some kindred State collegiate institute back again.

The present Catholic schools of Alexandria are in charge of the Sisters of Divine Providence, with Sister Mary Joseph, superioress since September, 1887. The convent and school buildings commenced at that time were completed in September, 1890. The average attendance is 100. Sister M. Blandino is now superior and principal. The storm of April, 1801, blew down the Alexandria market house (just completed), carried away part of the roof of the Ice-House Hotel, destroyed the buildings known as Parkers' Institute then converted into a clothing factory by J. S. Calhoun.

The hail storm of April, 1870, destroyed many windows in the city. The flood of May and June 1800 swept over the levee above Alexandria on May 30, and early next morning the embankment gave way. With the exception of twelve or thirteen houses, the whole town was flooded. The walls of Goodman's saloon, Henarie's and John Veil's stores; Irving's brick house, opposite the town hall, and every brick building in town sustained damages or caved in, including the Ice-House Hotel, which lost ten feet of its northwest corner in the current. J. A. Williams' warehouse was washed away, and the buildings of Sullivan and. J. Walker were lowered. On June 29, 1867, the levee opposite the old courthouse gave way, flooding the town. During the evening the crevasse was stopped, and by morning the waters disappeared. The overflows of 1884 and 1890 are referred to in the first part of the history of Rapides.

The lire of May 13, 1804, was started by the troops in or about where Baur & Veil's store now stands on Front Street. Front Street was destroyed to the point where the Morgan Railroad depot, now stands and back from the river to Fourth Street, or about twenty-three blocks. The Catholic Church was saved by Father Bellier, who stood guard until a prospect of safety appeared. The explosion at Seip's saw mill in February, 1870, resulted in the death of a Scotchman named David Irving (engineer), and a Negro fireman. The fire of March, 1874, destroyed the Peterman building.

The Alexandria fire of November, 1879 was the most destructive known since its destruction by the Federals. It originated in the oil room of Julius Levin's grocery store, where a Colored man was filling a kerosene lamp. The fire spread to Mrs. E. S. Hetherwick's dry goods store, entailing a loss of $18,000. Julius Levin's four buildings and stock amounted to about the same sum; Fred Schen's brick building was also destroyed and other buildings damaged. On October 15, 1880, the Legras building, Moses Aaron's store, the Baptist Church and parsonage, the Grange store and Thomas Cokeley's house were burned. In February, 1887, the town engine house was burned.

Judge Cushman, of Alexandria, who died of yellow fever September 17, 1855, was the first victim of the disease at that point. There were forty persons under its influence at that time, lint the type was not so malignant as in 1853. Fifteen deaths were reported prior to September 25. In October, 1807, yellow lever attacked the Germans of Alexandria as it did in 1853, carrying off five persons in town prior to October 23. The disease visited the town in 1837, 1839, 1847, 1853 and 1855. Prom October 1 to November 1, 1867, there were 140 cases of fever.

The first record of the Catholic Church of Alexandria is dated 1817, 100 years after the church was established at Natchitoches and about 105 years after that of Pineville. Father Anduze, of Natchitoches, appears to have been resident priest at the time. Prom (his period to 1834 or 1835, one of the priests of the church at Natchitoches resided here at times and visited the mission regularly. In 1834-35 the present church building was erected, Father D'Haurd being resident priest. Rev. F. Van de Vilde, S. J., subsequently first bishop of Little Rock, Ark., was here in 1837. Rev. Flavins Henri Rossi was cure and Rev. J. Chambige, C. M. K. T., were here in 1838, followed by Rev. Robert. Doogin, C. C., in 1840. In 1849 Rev. M. F. Mazznchelli came. In 1851 Rev. H. Figary was pastor and served the church solely until October, 1855, when Rev. L. Gergand was appointed assistant priest. During this year the cure and Pere Gergand, as well as other priests, performed prodigious work in attending to yellow fever sufferers. The venerable T. P. Beliier came in October, 1859, and in May, 1894, defended the church building, single-handed, against the Federal Army. Stranger than this, he succeeded. Father T. B. Avenard was appointed cure in August, 1807. He remained until his death in 1883.

Rev. Jerome J. Bres was appointed assistant in 1882. Rev. L. Menard was here in March, 1883. In June, 1877, Father Menard was appointed assistant. Since that time Revs. J. J. Bres, E. Dumas and Rev. J. B. Limague have served as assistant priests. The Jesuits and other regular priests visit Alexandria at intervals. The Church of the Sacred Heart, of Pineville, was dedicated September 29, 1878. . St. Aloysius, at Fairmount, Grant Parish, was dedicated in March, 1878. St. Martin's Church, Kanomie, was dedicated on July 27, 1879. It was subsequently (in 1886) moved to Lecompte and blessed by Bishop Durier on October 9 of that year. St. John's Church, Big Island, was dedicated on April 5, 1880. St. Peter's Church, Harrisonburg, was dedicated on October 15, 1882, The congregation at Alexandria is about 500, and of the ecclesiastical parish 1,200.

St. James Church (Protestant Episcopal), Alexandria, was organized May 5, 1844, and was attended by preachers from Natchitoches until 1840. In November, 1847, Rev. A. D. McCoy was appointed first rector, and under his direction the society was legally organized, with Dr. John P. Davidson, S. V.; Dr. S. A. Smith, J. V.; S. V, Gordon, Dr. T. H. Maddox, M. Wells, Willis Bonner, O. V. Nally, Carey H. Blanchard, John K. Elgee, J. Chambers, H. Machen and G. Harris, vestrymen. In April, 1849, the contract for manufacturing the brick for the proposed house of worship, was sold to the Ariails, at $7 per thousand; but the corner-stone was not placed until November 1, 1851 and the building was not used until April 9, 1854, nor consecrated until June 13, 1854. At this time there were thirty-seven White and 105 Negro communicants.

In 1855 Revs. F. H. Holiman and N. C. Pridham preached here, a bell was introduced this year. In November, 1857, Rev. Caleb Dowe was appointed rector, vice Rev. McCoy, and through his exertions the number of communicants was increased to fifty-nine White and 274 Colored. In 1849 a silver Eucharistic service was purchased. During the advance of the Federals, this service was placed in charge of Father Bellier, of St. Francis Xavier's Catholic Church, and during the second invasion in May, 1864, when the town was burned, this silver service was hidden in the cistern at Dr. Davidson's house. The parish was reorganized, April 2, 1866, with Dr. George E. French, S. V., and Dr. Diffenderfer, J. W. In 1868 a meeting was held at the ice-house, to consider the question of building a church-house; in 1869 Mr. McCoy was appointed rector; but was succeeded in 1870 by Rev. Spruille Burford. in October, 1871. the now church was completed, but on May 24, 1872, a tornado swept it away. The rector, left the place in charge of Rev. A. N. Ogden, who was chosen rector in April, 1873. On May 25, 1874, the cornerstone of the third building was placed, and the house was completed in October following. Rev. Herman C. Duncan was called as pastor in April 1880, and in October. 1881, Rev. Ralph H. Prosser was appointed assistant, followed in 1888 by Rev. R. S. Stuart. The building was consecrated May 27, 1883. In April 1881, the Bishop Wilmer Memorial Chapel at Kanomie, where a church house was built in 1879, was received into the parish the same year St. Philip's Mission at Lodi was established, and in November, 1883, the beginnings of All Souls Mission Church on the Chaseland plantation, near Lecompte, were made.

St. Mark's Protestant Episcopal Church, Alexandria, was organized June 1, 1873, when a Sun day-school, composed of Colored children, gathered under the superintend term of John M. Barrett. It was then known as St. James Mission. In August. 1883, St. Mark's Guild was organized. The Methodist Episcopal Church South may be said to have been established here early in the forties. Philo M. Goodwyn was appointed Methodist preacher on the Caddo Circuit in 1843, and served the church in this section of Louisiana until superannuated in 1872. He died November 15, 1882. During the war the old church building was destroyed, but a few years after peace was insured the Methodists of this circuit erected a substantial house of worship, which continued in use until September 7, 1890, when the new church building was dedicated by Bishop C. B. Galloway, of Jackson, Miss., assisted by the pastor, Rev. B. F. White.

The Baptist Church of ante-bellum days is a memory at Alexandria. Rev. W. A. Robert was pastor of the church from its organization up to May, 1861, when he resigned.

Welchton Baptist Church was constituted in August, 1890, with fifty-two members, by E. O. Ware and Rev. J. T. Barrett, Uncle Cupid Piper, an old Colored preacher eighty-three years of age, who was greatly respected by White and Black in Grant and Rapides Parishes, died in September. 1886. He was the pastor of Loyal Hill Baptist Church on Bayou Rapides, which had over 300 members. His ability was superior to the average Colored preacher, as his morals and character were. For two or three years before his death be was totally deprived of sight, but continued to preach.

Columbian Lodge No. 23, A. F. & A. M,, was chartered in 1819, and continued work up to 1849, Even in 1828, when so many of the Masonic bodies passed out of existence, old Columbian Lodge persevered. Cheneyville Lodge, known as Hiram No. 39 was chartered in 1828 and existed until 1849. Alexandria Lodge No. 45 was chartered in 1836. and still holds its charter. Oliver Lodge No. 93 was chartered at Alexandria in 1849, but ceased work in 1850. Henderson Lodge No. 108, of Cotile, existed from 1851 to 1862. Murray Lodge 156- was chartered at Alexandria in ,1856, but surrendered charter in 1857. Gordy Lodge, of Cheneyville, No. 142 was chartered in 1855, and is still a working body. Rapides Lodge 167, at Huddleston, existed from 1859 to 1881. Fellowship 220, chartered at Hinestown in 1873, is now located at Spring Creek and claims fifty members. Solomon Lodge No. 100, of Pineville, chartered as No. 200 in 1874, now claims fourteen members.

Summit Council No. 12, R. & S. M., was constituted March 18, 1889, with H. C. Dutican, Thomas Clements, G. W. Bolton, Julius Levin, E. B. Pendleton, G. A. Staples, J. M. Barrett, V. O. Damon, A. Pettengill, and A. Hilton, filling the respective offices.

Keystone Chapter 44, E. A. M., held its first annual election in March, 1888. H. C. Duncan, G. W. Bolton, D. C. Paul, Joseph James, J. J. Ferguson, G. A. Staples, A. Pettengill, Joseph T. Hatchy, Julius Levin, E. B. Pendleton and A. Hilton, filling the respective offices. In 1889 G. V. Bolton presided over the chapter. Alexandria Lodge No. 33 was instituted March 9, 1882, with a large membership. The success of this society here has been phenomenal, its present, strength being about, 100 members.

Endowment Rank, K. of P. was instituted September 7, 1882 by Dr. Scott, of Shreveport, with J. M. Hetherwick. P.; C. A. Schnack, V. P.; T. M. Biossat, Sec. and Treas.; R. C. Rogers. Chap.; Sol. Hess, G.; Jacob Geiger, I. G. and Fred Schen, Sent.

The A, L, of H, was organized January 25, 1882, with the following named officers in legion order: Daniel Dupre, J. V. Gordon, A. P. Williams, F. S. Flower, T. M. Biossat, Dr. Dupre, C. Goldenberg, G. H. Wilson, Jacob Geiger and T. J. Severns. The trustees were C. Goldenberg, C. Flower and J. Geiger. Messrs. Watts, Watson, Nasits, Blackman. Mathews and Hess were unofficial charter members.

Rebecca Lodge No. 240, I. O. B. B., was organized in May, 1875, with E. Weil, P.; Jonas Weil, V. P .; Moses Mayer, Sec.; Charles Goldenberg, F. S.; Moses Rosenthal, Treas.; P. II. Oswald and Sol. Hess, Monitors; Julius Carpar, W.; Henry Hayman, Guardian; A. Hayman, I. Jackson and B. Hershman, Trustees.

The I. C. B. U. was organized in March, 1880 with L. V, Marye, P. John P. Grogan, V. P.; A. B. Radial, Rec.; J. B. Radial, F. S.; X. Ransdell, Marshal; P. Thomassy, S at A., and P. Kelly, Treasurer.

The K. of H. were organized at Alexandria in May, 1888 with M. Bloom, Ben Turner, H. W. S. Lund, J. F. Ariail, C. Greenwood, L. B, Baynard, A. Jarrean, I. Veil, L. Weinberg, L. C. Giffe and J. A. Johnston filling the offices. The trustees were S. Cullen, E. J. Hardtner and W. D. Smith.

In November, 1882, the New York Lumber Company commenced the erection of their large saw mill near the mouth of Bayou Rapides. Owing to mismanagement, this mill is now idle. The Red River Oil Works date back to 1883, when a company was incorporated, with John C. Wickliffe, C. H. Teal, Henry A. Biossat, Henry A. Boyce, O. W. Watson, John W. Miller and Frank A. Blanchard, directors.

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