Caddo Parish, Louisiana History and Genealogy
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Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwest Louisiana Index
Including Thirteen Parishes

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The first fire company was organized in 1852 under the title, Caddo Company No. 1. Among the members were A. L. Heine, foreman; J. B. Gilmore, J. G. McWilliams, R. H. Lindsay, V. Shidet, M. Bear, L. Cook, A. Shaffner, William Thatcher, H. Lindman, William Robson, O. J. Wells, Ben Jacobs, R. Daws and R. A. Waller. R. H. Lindsay succeeded Heine as foreman, and commanded the first parade in May, 1853. In 1866 the department was reorganized under the old name with John Dickenson, president, and Thomas Byland, foreman. The latter was succeeded in order, by F. N. Sanchez, R. B. Burns, W. F. Chase, C. Andriola, John Ford, Ben Sour, John Bacon and James D. Boazman (who was serving in May, 1882); Jake Chanse 1885-89; J. P. McDonald 1887-88; H. Hugg and R. A. Grubbs, 1889-90. John Caldwell is president and J. W. Daner, the secretary.

Pelican Hook and Ladder Company was organized in 1867, with A. H. Leonard, president, and S. W. S. Gulp, foreman. The latter was succeeded in order, by Jules Bonrquin, W. F. Chase, E. M, Sturges, T. B. Chase, W. C. Haden, Dick Richards, L. L. Tompkies, Jr., J. H. Jordan, Eugene Conway, W. E. Maples, John L. Gill, J. C. Elstner (who was foreman in 1882), Alf Jenkins, 1883-86, and Jules Guerre 1886-90. Conway Moncure is president, and Frank J. Nolan, secretary of the company.

Caddo Company No. 2 was organized in 1867, with J. B. Gilmore, president, and R, H. Lindsay, foreman. The latter office was filled respectively up to the close of 1882, by B. P. Parker, P. W. H, Cnmmings, G. P. Walsh, John Resotti, J. A, Vandoren and Michael Berenstein, 1882-87; H. White, 1887-88; Patrick Lowe, 1888-89, and F. Voelcker, 1889-90. P. Lowenthal is president and A. Bell, secretary.

Germania Hook and Ladder Company No. 2, was organized in 1871, with H. C. C. Zeigler, president and George Gunther, foreman. The latter office was held respectively by Henry Dillenberger, John Patsman and Joe Fink, who was serving in 1882.

Allendale Fire Company No. 4 was organized in 1890, with R. T. Cole, president; R. Browing, secretary; E. Wortmau, foreman; G. W. Zoder and W. C. Cooper, assistants; J. W. Jones, vice president; M. T. Quigles, treasurer and G. B. Bertram, steward; Messrs. Cole, Jones and William Kinney, delegates.

Phoenix Salvage Corps was organized in 1873, with N. T. Buckelew, president, and E. H. Lindsay, captain. The captains prior to January 1, 1883, were Andrew Currie, M. S. Crain, R. N. McKellar, A. Weaver and Jules Guerre. Shreveport Salvage Corps No. 1 was organized April, 1880, with O. P. O'Gilvie, captain. In June, W. W. Waddill was elected, followed successively by Guido Maiturg, W. W. Battle, who was serving in 1890. John L. Hodges is president; C. D. Hicks, secretary and treasurer, and N. W. Buckelew, vice-president.

In 1875 the five companies were incorporated as a department, with John H. Jordan, president. He was succeeded by John C. Moncure and he by Capt. William Robson, who was serving in 1882. The chiefs of the department have been W, E. Kennedy, George W. Kendall, A. H. Leonard, F. N. Sanchez, P. W. H. Gumming, John J. Horan, John C. Moncure, Andrew Currie, George Gunther and J. H. Jordan, 1882.

The marshals have been C. W. Spiker, 1808; Nathan Gregg, Dr. J. L. Moore, O. L. Chamberlain, J. H. Jordan, George Raue, R. H. Lindsay, J. J. Horan, S. A. Alston, R. W. Ford, J. A. McCoy, L. P. Grim, J. A. Booty, William Boazman and R. L. Her, the marshal in 1882 when the fete was held in Fireman's Park. William Robson was president, 1882-84; William McKenny, 1884-86, and Conway Moncure, 1886-90. Charles W. Crane served as secretary in 1882-83, and Frank J. Nolan 1883-90.

John Walpole's gin-house, four miles from the town, was burned in December, 1855, with twenty bales of cotton. The fire of October 19, 1856, destroyed the new parish jail, which, a few years before, was built at a cost of $10,000. The fire originated in a house close by. The fire of January, 1857, originated in the Jewell Coffee House, corner of Texas and Market Streets, and destroyed the buildings of M. Watson, B. M. Johnson, Dr. George, David Gilmer, T. M. Gilmer, J. M. Landrum and Grain & Jones. The Market House owned by Griggsby was also destroyed. Cocklin's building was burned in April, 1857. In May the stores of Kneeland & Co., J. H. Brown and A. A. Enos, on Texas and Spring Streets, were burned.

The fire of January, 1859, destroyed the Smile Coffee House, the old City Hotel, on Texas Street (the latter vacated a few days before by Allwine, the lessee), and other buildings. The T. W. Jones residence and adjacent buildings were destroyed by fire October 19, 1872. On November 23 his saw-mill and foundry were burned. The fire of February 19, 1873, originated in the Jacobs store, which it destroyed together with the frame buildings occupied by Staffs, Dreyfuss, Marsh, Sartini, Weinstock and Dalpino; the brick building of L. Baer and M. Baer, on Texas and Spring Streets, and the old frame building in rear of Weinstock's store, known as the Catfish Hotel, then the oldest house here. The total loss was estimated at $400,000. The fire of June 2, 1879, destroyed the Thenard store and other buildings belonging to Joseph Boisseau and the Gregg .& Ford building. This was followed by the fire of June 8, which destroyed Mrs. John Dickinson's tenement house on Fannin and Edwards Streets. The fire of October 31, 1880, destroyed Hamilton& Co.'s cotton-seed oil mill. The Bourquin warehouse and 235 bales of cotton were burned March 21, 1881. On March 2 a wall of the Jacobs building fell in, killing Michael Bonipet. The Pelican Cotton Mills were also destroyed in April, 1884; at this time they were owned and operated by R. P. Kellum. The fire of February 1, 1880, originated in the one-story brick building on Texas Street, between Market and Edwards Streets, occupied by Brewing's grocery and Seigle's dry goods store. The firemen saved the building adjacent. During the year ending August, 1889, a number of conflagrations occurred. That of January, 1889, destroyed two small buildings on Marshall Street, while the fire of July 10, on Milan and Spring Streets, destroyed $75,000 worth of property belonging to J. M. & G. W. Robinson, Schwarz & Kern, A. J. Bogel, J. H. Fullilove, Ardis & Co., W. D. Soofield, William Enders & Son, J. B. Smith, Utz & Smith, Wyche & Thompson, Looney & Maples, Judge S. L. Taylor, Dew L. Tally, J. H. Prescott, S. N. Kerley, Young & Thatcher, L. S. & M. S. Crain and D. B. Martin. The fire of April 3, 1890, destroyed the Israel store, owned by Madams Roland Jones and Jessie Crain, and William Winter's store, together with the stocks of M. Israel, H. A. Winter and Paul Lowenthal.

The tornado of April 19, 1872, damaged some steamboats in the river, blew in the gable of Marsh & McKellar's warehouse, and carried away the roofs of the following-named storehouses: Howell, Durham & Tomkie's; Hamilton & Austin's, Twyman & Womack's, occupied by Martin & Ford; Maples' and Stacey & Poland's. The store buildings on Texas Street blown down or damaged were Taber's, the Sewing Machine Company's; Sour's and Kahn Bros.', Stoner's beef packinghouse, and Chamberlain's machine-shop were damaged; Phillip Dugan's house was blown into the river, and several buildings carried away or damaged, among them the Colored Baptist Church. The residence of Mrs. Conway, one mile from the court-house, was unroofed.

The railroad bridge accident of July 23, 1890, must be termed the most fortunate accident of our times, if such a term may be applied. The Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific passenger train signaled for the bridge just at the moment that the steamer " E. B. Wheelock'' signaled. The draw was opened for the steamer, but Monk, the engineer, found his locomotive uncontrollable and in less than a minute the locomotive leaped into Red River with the tender, leaving the train proper on the track. Robert Chapman was conductor of this train and James Moseley, fireman. In 1855-56 Col. Hodge erected two brick store buildings on Texas Street, where the Palmetto House stood, later the Morris drug- store; G. M. Nichols, three one-story brick tenements on the same street; Reuben White, a brick store on Commerce Street, where Robert Donnell formerly carried on business; Drs. Logan and Nutt, on Commerce and Milan Streets; Bryan & Nichols built on Commerce Street, where the old block occupied by J, O. Rountree, Winter & Bros., Turner, Her & Beck, G. M. Nichols, and Donnell was destroyed by fire in 1852.

The only buildings over thirty years of age in existence at Shreveport in January, 1872, were those occupied by A. Weinstock on Texas Street and Green (Commercial) Alley; the two-story house on Texas Street, occupied by J. Caldwell; the house in rear, occupied by Mrs. George, and the low building on Edwards Street, owned by Mrs. Talmadge. The floor of this old building was level with the sidewalk, and the front half of the wooden portion of the Planters' Hotel. Dr. Allen's house, opposite the Baptist Church, was also numbered among the old buildings. In 1872 there were three machine-shops here, Jones giving employment to thirty-two hands; Stoner & Co.'s beef packing-house was idle; the first steam laundry was established; the first cotton compress was opened January 17, by S. B. Steers & Co., and with the ground cost $22,500. There were 10,855 bales compressed. The National Company's compress was opened in November of that year, with a capacity of 50,000 bales; the cotton-seed oil factory; the soap factory, which produced 1,500 boxes of hard soap; three breweries, and the Silver Lake Spoke & Hub Factory.

The two saw-mills within and one seven miles from the city produced about 4,000,000 feet of lumber; two planning machines, about 1,700,000 feet; and the shingle yards, 3,000,000 shingles; and the brick-yards, 5,000,000 brick.

The ice works established in 1871, and Col. Bosworth's large ice house, built in 1872, at a cost of $20,000, were welcome additions to the business circle, the ice selling for 1J cents per pound. Kimble & Chase's carriage factory was enlarged during the year; the gin-stand factory, one mile west on the Texas road, and the Rose gin-stand factory near Cross Bayou, and the gasworks, formed the leading manufacturing industries. In September, 1872, the total number of feet of gas mains in the city was 14,000. The Shreveport Street Railroad, one mile in length, cost $35,000; the Pairfield Railroad, one and one-half miles in length, $26,000, and the Texas Avenue road, as then proposed, was to cost $16,000.

In the summer of 1872 substantial residences were erected within the old city limits by Dr. Lacy, R. W. Ford, James Hass, R. Giltillan, T. Kelly, Dr. Hilliard, J. J. Gragard, J. B. Gilmore, William Robson and S. C. Wright, while adjoining the town, dwellings were erected for G. B. Bertrand, O. L. Van Creelan, J. A. Jacobs, F. N. Sanchez, Thomas Byland, S. D. Leverett, Rev. Drane, John Herndon and T. M. Gilmer. During the summer of 1.873 the buildings for Maj. Tally on Milan Street, and for Baer, Jacobs, Weinstock and Howell, in the "burned district," were erected. During the year ending September 1, 1882, the following-named business buildings were erected: Henry Dreyfuss & Son, Texas and Market Streets; Basch & Slattery, Market; Mrs. M. Baer, Spring and Texas; A. Sour, Spring; John J. Dillon's block, Market; A. J. Bogel's, Market; and Hamilton & Co.'s oil mill and gin house. Dwelling houses were erected for H. Florsheim, the McEachen estate, S. G. Dreyfuss, W. I. Brunner, James P. Patterson, S. Levy, Mrs. M. Baer, J. H. Stoner, S. B. McGutcheon, Mrs. Kahn, D. L. Tally, J. D. Boazman, C. H. Ardis, W. L. Stringfellow, L. Casparis and Miss Austin, and tenement houses for C. G. Thurmond, L. E. Carter and J. J. Dillon. The depot at the foot of Market Street was also erected this year. Bogel's Hall was begun in June, 1882, the old buildings on Market Street, in the rear of his store, being torn down to make way for this improvement. The old three story brick, No. 65 Market Street, began before the war, and completed afterward for use of the old Caddo Gazette, then published by Dr. Lacy, and later converted into the Lone Star House, lost its rear wall in June, 1882. The rear wall of M. Israel's building, near the levee, fell out a short time prior to this. In 1882 the question of erecting a United States building at Shreveport was agitated with success by Congressman Blanchard, and an appropriation of $100,000 made. On July 6, Gov. McEnery approved a local measure, introduced by Judge Seay, ceding jurisdiction to the United States over any real estate acquired or selected for public buildings.

The post office at Shreveport is contemporary with the establishment of the town. L. E. Carter was postmaster in 1854. In December, 1855, Henry Hunsicker was appointed. In February, 1866, Joseph Howell held the office succeeding T. G. Compton of The Sentinel, who was appointed master by the United States in September, 1865. C. W. Keiting was master in 1871-72. William McKenna filled the office for two terms, and was succeeded by J. C. Soape. Capt. Thornton E. Jacobs was installed May 1, 1890, to succeed Capt. J. C. Soape, who completed one term. On April 10, 1890, the safe in the vault was robbed, the amount of stamps and currency taken being estimated at $2,500. The post office building, for the erection of which Congressman Blanchard won from Congress over $100,000, is a pretentious structure, fronting on Texas Street. Here are the officers of the United States marshal, United States district judge, United States collector, United States signal service and post-office. In August, 1890, Shreveport was created division headquarters for the railroad mail service, Meridian being hitherto headquarters.

On March 15, 1855, an act to establish a branch of the citizens Bank of Louisiana, or of the Louisiana State Bank at Shreveport was approved. A Mr. Love was cashier. In January, 1859, Messrs. Denegre, Musson and Tibault, of the Citizens Bank, purchased the L. P. Crain residence on Market and Milan Streets, for $8,000, and converted a part of the building into a bank office. The Johnson bank, however, must be considered the pioneer banking house. L. L. Tompkies had a house here in 1877.

The Commercial National Bank may be said to date back to 1852, when a private banking-house was established here by Ben Johnson. It was nationalized in 1887, and has a paid-in capital of $100,000, with a surplus of $21,000, and undivided profits of $15,000. The officers are S. B. McCutcheon, president; J. P. Scott, vice-president, and T. L. Stringfellow, cashier, who, together with the following gentlemen, constitute the board of directors: J. G. McWilliams, James Boisseau, N. Gregg, H. T. Doll, James Dillinger and R. N. McKellar. The beginnings of the First National Bank date back to 1877, when the house of E. & W. B. Jacobs was established. In 1887 a United States charter was granted. The capital is $200,000, and, together with the surplus and undivided profits, will make the amount nearly $300,000. The bank situate at the corner of Milan and Market Streets, is a commodious and well arranged banking-house, with all the modern improvements. The board of directors embrace the following well-known citizens: P. M. Hicks, R. T. Cole, James P. Utz, E. J. Leman, H. Plorsheim, S. G. Dreyfus, C. H. Ardis, E. Jacobs, W. B. Jacobs, of Shreveport, and H. Kretz, a capitalist of Reading, Penn. The banking-house of S. Levy, Jr., was established in 1887. At this time he erected the building on Milan and Market Streets, and equipped it for banking purposes in modern form.

The Merchants & Farmers Bank was organized September 10, 1889, with Thomas B. Chase, president; Charles Benjamin Wilkinson, vice-president; W. P. Ford, cashier, and Arthur J. Newman, assistant cashier. The capital stock is placed at $200,000. The first officers were: President, P. Youree; vice-president, Charles B. Wilkinson, of Philadelphia; cashier, W. P. Ford; directors, P. Youree, J. B. Ardis, S. B. Hicks, A. Meyer, N. 0. Blanchard; attorneys, Alexander & Blanchard. The Louisiana Telephone Company completed their line to Shreveport in October, 1881, and within a few years the city was placed within speaking distance of neighboring towns in Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas. Telegraph communication is not subject to delays as in the North, and even the press is supplied with news by the Associated Press.

The street railroad system of the city is excellent. This railroad may be said to introduce the new era of progress, which removed Shreveport miles away, as it were, from the old town of 1873, and placed her 200 years in advance of the unkempt village of that period. In 1871 two street-car companies were organized. The second annual meeting of the Texas Street Railroad Company, held in June, 1872, elected A. B. Levisee, president; Ed Jacobs, vice-president, and L. A. Pires, treasurer, while the Greenwood Railroad Company elected L. L. Tompkies, president. Up to the close of 1889 there were scarcely two miles of street railroad existing. In July, 1888, the S., L. & I. Co. was incorporated, with S. B. McCutcheon, president; F. G. Thatcher, secretary; H. Sour, treasurer; directors: S. B. McCutcheon, John S. Young, John R. Jones, M. L. Scovell, H. Zodiag. By June, 1890, the Belt Line was complete from Market Street to the Fair Grounds, and the work of girding the city still goes on. The Electric Street Railroad is also being pushed forward with a prospect of completing the system this year.

The Van Bibber Hotel stood where now is the Two Brothers Saloon on Texas Street. The old building was torn down and a new house built by a Mr. Reynolds, now of Texas. The hill on which the old Bibber House stood was then removed. In October, 1858, T. D. Powell purchased the old Alston House and named it the Commercial. The Planter's Hotel, sometimes called The Catfish, stood on Spring Street, but could be scarcely called a hotel so early as 1848. The Veranda Hotel, owned by Haussabrunk, was destroyed by fire in June, 1866. This stood on the corner of Spring and Milan Streets. The Jewell Coffee House on Texas and Market Streets, and the Smile Coffee House, were destroyed by fire before the war.

In April, 1872, the Southern Hotel was purchased from Capt. W. T. Brooks by E. J. Crain. The City Hotel was erected on Milan Street before the war. The old hotel of this name stood on Texas Street, and was burned in 1859. The present City Hotel, owned by A. J. Reynolds, is a popular hotel. The Phoenix Hotel is the most stately building erected for hotel purposes at Shreveport. It was designed by Maj. Leffingwell and erected for Pete Vouree. The house stands on Texas and Market Streets, where the Tilley hotel stood, which was burned in 1887 or 1888. The hotel is constructed with a broad front, from which two wings run back with a space or court between them, thus enabling every sleeping or living room in the house to be well lighted and ventilated. Mr. Walshe is the lessee. Throughout the pages of this work many of the hotels of the past find mention.

In the reminiscences of Shreveport by L. S. Crain, published in 1882, reference is made to the old house on the Texas road, The One-Mile House, about 150 feet from the street car depot. This house stood partly on the owner's land and on that of his neighbor. The latter insisted on its removal, and presented the question to the courts. In August, 1858, two shots were heard in the vicinity, and a man by the name of E. Ward was seen to ride away by the old Texas road. Immediately the body of W. W. Smith was found. The murderer was pursued, but before the pursuers reached him he sought rest near Ringgold. That night a posse attacked the desperado, and after the loss of three men, captured and took him to Shreveport, where he was tried and sentenced to death. Shortly after this he and Bennett, also under death sentence, escaped from the old jail, assisted by Columbus Nottingham. Bennett and Nottingham rode off, but Ward being too weak to mount the horse provided for him, proceeded toward the hill where School No. 1 stood, and there was discovered by James Markham. Ward was about shooting Markham, when Nat Farris, who was just return ing from a hunt, seeing the state of affairs, fired on the murderer and killed him. His friends buried him in Summer Grove Cemetery. Artemis Bennett was hanged here in January, 1860. From the beginnings of Shreveport a place of amusement was provided fot' the people. From the primitive and rough theater or music hall of early days there was a gradual advance to modernism.

In December, 1871, the large frame building, opposite the National Hotel on Milan Street, was converted into what was known as Crisp's Gaiety Theatre. Maud's Peril, a very sensational drama, was presented in January, 1872. Other houses of amusement were brought into existence, but in 1880 the spirit of improvement rebelled against their accommodations. The present opera house was suggested in 1886 by one of the editors of the Times. In February, 1887, a meeting was held to consider the question of building, R. H. Howell presiding, with J. V. Nolan secretary. As a result, three and a half lots on Texas and Edward Streets were purchased March 20, 1887, for $14,000, and on June 2 McElpatrick & Sons' plans were adopted. On March 31,1887, the stock company organized with R. H. Howell, president; E. J. Leman, vice-president; W. C. Perrin, treasurer; S. N. Kerley, secretary; S. J. Zeigler, L. M. Carter, S. N. Ford, E. L. Bremond, W. B. Jacobs, S. G. Dreyfuss and R. N. McKellar, directors. In May, 1888, J. F. Utz was chosen president. Shortly after the adoption of plans the building contract was sold to W. A. Crawford, of Shreveport, for $25,000, the decorative work to Noxon, Albert & Toomy, of St. Louis, for $4,500 and the plumbing and gas-fitting to P. Martel. The house was opened September 17, 1889, L. M. Carter, manager and lessee, by the Gilbert-Huntley Company in "May Blossom." The auditorium seats 1,100 persons comfortably, the stage is 41 x 60 feet and the whole house a most creditable monument to the enterprise of Shreveport.

In 1843 Elder John Bryce was sent to Shreveport, as collector of customs on imports from the Republic of Texas. He did not find a Baptist organization west of the Red River, but by February 12, 1845, he had the first Baptist Church of Shreveport, nine members, in existence. In 1847 Jesse Lee, a preacher, settled near Summer Grove, and organized a society there, and there on December 21, 1849, the Grand Cane Association was formed. In 1848 their first church house was erected, at a cost of $2,500.

The First Colored Baptist Church, now the Antioch Baptist Church, was organized in 1866 with seventy-three members out of the older society. This organization grew into seven churches by 1882, and embraced 1,200 members, in and around Shreveport.

Boggy Bayou Baptist Church was constituted, in 1849, as an Anti-Missionary Baptist Church, but lost this character in 1855. Providence Church was formed in 1849, with Jesse Lee as pastor. The same year Bethel Church was organized, near Mooringsport. In 1874-75 a house of worship was erected here.

The Louisiana Methodist Conference was organized in 1846. At that time there were only a new Methodist classes in Caddo, and only two or three church buildings. The new faith was accepted by many, and recruits from the Baptist fold increased the number from other Protestant denominations, until the membership was counted by the thousand. The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, is contemporary with the establishment of the town. The house of worship at the head of Texas Street was built in 1882-83, from plans by W. A. Trevet. The bricks were manufactured by Joseph Busby. I n 1848 or 1849 the action of the Baptists suggested a Methodist building. Among the members were a few Africans.

Immediately after the war, the colored population began organization. In February, 1866, a committee of the African Methodist Church purchased, from Jeremiah O'Brien, Lots 3 and 4, Block 18, in Shreveport. A house of worship was erected shortly after. Prior to this the slaves had an African corner in the meeting-house of the white Methodists. In August, 1865, the floor of this old Colored Methodist Church building gave way. The building was filled with worshipers, who sought every exit on hearing the first crash. The preacher escaped through the back window, yelling: "I am comin', Lord, Glory Hallelujah!"

I n October, 1873, some thieves removed the corner-stone of Rev. Armstead's colored church, and took therefrom the $15 deposited there when the stone was placed. The preacher thought of ceasing his services to the sick, as he suspected the whole church would be stolen by sacrilegious robbers, unless watched.

The Colored churches are known as Antioch, Galilee, St. Paul's, St. Matthew's and St. James. They have been brought into existence since 1865. The principles of government are identical with those of the Baptists and Methodists, to which sects the negroes of this city are mainly attached for religious purposes.

The Presbyterian Church, while not the senior in age, is in wealth and influence. This association is presided over by Rev. Matthew Van Lear. St. Mark's English Protestant Episcopal Church is comparatively modern. Like the Presbyterian, it is kept well together, and claims a wealthy membership. The German Evangelical Lutheran Church is well represented at Shreveport.

Zion (Hebrew) Congregation was organized in 1857, and Rabbi Lewin was called to preside shortly after. A frame building, in rear of the present synagogue, was improved at a cost of $5,000 and used for worship for many years. Dr. Samfield followed the first rabbi, then Dr. Greenblatt, and in 1887 or 1888 came Dr. Hess, who remained eleven years. In 1867 the synagogue was erected at a cost of $22,000.

The missions of the Catholic Church, on the Texas and Red Rivers, date back to the middle of the sixteenth century. Prior to 1857 this section was attended from De Soto. In February, 1857, Father Pierre, formerly of De Soto Parish, came to Shreveport with the purpose of raising funds for the erection of a Catholic Church here. He was successful. He died here in 1873. The remains of Father Gergaud, one of the martyr priests to the epidemic of 1873, were" disinterred in January, 1874, and removed to Monroe, where a monument was placed over the new resting-place of the bones. The re-interment of the bodies of Fathers Pierre, Levezouet and Quemarais, who also died here while aiding the yellow-fever patients, took place in March, 1884. The remains were transferred to the new Catholic cemetery. Father Gentille is the present pastor, and Rev. C. Arnaud assistant priest.

The Convent of the Daughters of the Cross, better known here as St. Vincent's, dates its origin back to 1640, when the first establishment of this order of nuns was opened at Paris for the education of young girls. After the French Revolution of 1793-98, the sisterhood was reorganized at Treguior in Low Britany, and from this house went forth, in 1855, those pious women who established the order in Louisiana—in Avoyelles, November 20, 1855, shortly after at Ile-Brevelle and Alexandria, and in 1858 at Shreveport. The first colony comprised Sister Mary Hyacinth, superior, and Sister St. Jean de Baptiste, assistant, with the six choir Sisters, Angel Guardian, Theresa of Jesus (the second Mother Superior in the United States) Mary of Jesus, St. Yves, Mary Alexis, Mary Philomiua and the lay Sisters, All Saints and Mary Martha. Mother St. Bernard was the third president of the order, followed by Mother Anna of Jesus and the present Reverend Mother M. Bulalie. As years rolled by thei establishment, known as St. Vincent's Convent, at Fairfield, two and one half miles south of Shreveport, became the mother house of the sisterhood, and to this community a charter was issued in 1807, covering the branch houses at Monroe, Marksville, Mansura and Shreveport. Recent additions to the buildings, at old St. Vincent's, render the convent there capable of accommodating a large number of pupils (boarders). At Shreveport, corner of Edwards and Fannin Streets, the Sisters of St. Vincent have erected one of the handsomest pieces of ecclesiastical architecture in the State. Throughout, the building is of pine with cypress finish in some parts. Sister St. Bernard is the Superioress at Shreveport.

From 1840 to the present time, Shreveport may boast of a number of private schools. Many of them have disappeared, and little that is authentic can be learned of them. The Collegiate Institute of Bev. S. P. Helme, established, in 1854, two miles from Shreveport, had a building 112 x 50 feet, and seven cottages erected in the fall of that year.

The Shreveport Female Institute, of which Mrs. Hay and Miss Gibbs were teachers, was established in 1860, in the house formerly occupied by Col. B. M. Johnson, on Travis and McNeil Streets. The seminary presided over by Miss Kate P. Nelson is one of the old educational institutions of the city. The new building at the corner of Texas and Grand Avenues, is a handsome one, erected at a cost, complete, of $30,000, with little attempt at beauty, save in the proportions of its various sections. The officers of the Seminary Association are S. Levy, Jr., president; Thomas P. Chase, secretary, and S. P. McCutchen, treasurer. The Thatcher Military Institute is one of the old educational institutions of the city. George E. Thatcher is president; P. E. Whitaker, professor of languages and elocution; P. M. Welsh of military tactics, and Mrs. Delia A. Thatcher, principal of primary department. The Louisiana Male and Female College is presided over by Rev. P. H. Hensley, with Dr. F. Wespy professor of languages and history; Miss Maud T. Copoland, principal of primary department and instructor in elocution, and Mrs. M. N. MacKee instructor in instrumental music.

The common school system is progressing here, but is principally availed of by the blacks, who correspond with Northern whites in school notions. Mrs. Hade's School, on Milan Street, is one of the private educational houses of the parish. The Washington & Lee University Alumni Association was foi-med in July, 1890, with the following officers: Hon, J. R. Land, president; Q.[Quintillius] T.[Tom] Bugg, J. C. Hamilton, vice presidents; C. W. Gregg, secretary; J. D. Bryan, M. Billiu, J. B. Foster, W. E. Hamilton, W. H. Wise, Jr., executive committee. Masonry at Shreveport dates back to 1845, when old Caddo Lodge No. 58 was chartered.

This charter was surrendered in 1853, but the same year was restored, in fact, under the title Shreveport Lodge No. 124. During the days of old Caddo Lodge Masons grew strong in number, and in 1850 organized Joppa Lodge No. 83, but this organization lost its charter in 1857. Ten years after the disappearance of the Joppaians, in 1807, Caddo Lodge No. 188 was recognized by the Grand Lodge, and, with the exception of change in number to Shreveport No. 115 and Caddo 179, the two lodges may be considered to have a continuous history from the dates given. In olden days, in this' section of Louisiana, petty disagreements brought several Masonic organizations to the point where the charter had to be surrendered; but the modern liberal in everything, settles all such trivial dissensions without resorting to extreme measures. Very few of the pioneers of Masonry at Shreveport answer roll call today. They have gone to take a higher degree. In the following sketches of the Council and Commandery a few of the pioneers find mention, and a large number of those who have come here since the war have their official connection with the two branches named, recorded.

Shreveport Council No. 5, R. & S. M., was instituted U. D. January 6, 1801, with Emmett D. Craig, T. I. G. M.; John C. Elstner, D. I. G. M.; J. W, Jones, P. C.; T. P. Hotchkiss, B. Jacobs, George W. Kendall, Henry Levy and Vincent Ritchie, illustrious companions. On February 14, 1861, a charter was granted; Ed. Jacobs, John G. McWilliams, Thomas C. Waller, Henry Hunsicker and J. Boggs, appearing as companions with the first named. In December, 1866, John W. Jones was elected T. I. G. M., to succeed Emmett D. Craig, and he served until December, 1871, when S. M. Asher was elected. S. M. Morrison was chosen in December, 1873, and served until the election of William Robson in December, 1874.

In December, 1875, S. M. Asher was elected, and in December, 1876, John W. Jones, who was still T. I. G. M. in 1890. John G. McWilliams was elected D. I. G. M. December 15, 1806, and reelected annually down to the present time; while J. L. Hargrove has served as recorder from 1879 to 1890. The present officers to Council rank are J. W. Jones, J. G. McWilliams, John J. Scott; S. B. McCutohen, Treas.; J. L. Hargrove, Rec.; S. F. Gordon, W. T. McMahon, J. P. Trice and W. T. D. Dalzell.

Ascension Commandery No. 6, K. T., was organized April 9, 1883, with John W. Jones, E. C.; J. G. McWilliams, G.; William Robson, C. G.; G. P. Evans, P . ; R. T. Hazard, S. W.; M. L. Scovell, J. W.; S. B. McCutchen, Treas.; C. G. Thurmond, Rec.; Julius Lisso, S. B . ; B. M. White, S. B . ; N. Gregg, W., and W. T. McMahon, C. of G. In 1884 W. T. D. Dalzell was elected commander; S. N. Ford, Treas., and W. B. Hamilton, Rec. In 1885 John G. McWilliams was chosen commander, and S. N. Kerley, Rec, and A. J. Bogel, Treas. They were re-elected for 1886. In 1887 C. H, Mingo presided over the Commandery, with J. C. Hamilton, Rec.; followed, in 1888, by J. A. Webb, E. C. and W. P. Taylor, Rec. S. B. McCutchen was elected commander for 1889-90, with S. N. Kerley, Rec.

Shreveport Chapter, R. A. M., No. 10, Longwood Lodge No. 192, organized at Mooringsport in 1867; Landmark Lodge No. 223, new number, 95, organized at Spring Ridge in 1873; Adonijah Lodge No. 228, organized at Black Bayou in 1874, and Clear Spring Lodge No. 235 organized at Longwood in 1877 and dropped in 1880, may be all said to outcrop from the mother lodges of Shreveport. Damon Lodge No. 2, K, of P., was the first Pythian organization in the city. Among its past chancellors may be named H. H. Hargrove (who was chancellor commander in 1882), R. T. Vinson (the present mayor), and C. C. Cahn; and among its first members were A. A. Lyon and Zaeh Hargrove, W. J. Willoughby, S. Caldwell, H. Sour, L. and S. Wolf, S. Kline and A. Bercher. Calanthe Lodge No. 10, K. of P., was instituted October 10, 1879, by Dr. John Scott, with the following- named officers in lodge rank: D. L. McKitrick, J. T. Davis, T. B. Chase, P. A. Daugherty, G. A. Turner, B. A. Holmes, R. L. Her, W. Boney, J. D. Jenkins and N. M. Smith. There are now sixty-three members. The present officers in lodge rank are W. M. Waddill, S. Hohenthal, Allen D. Morris, John Lake, J. V. Nolan, R. L. Her and L. J. Bigart. The past chancellors are as follows: W. F. Chase, J. J. Scott, P. A. Dangherty, R. L. Her, George A. Turner, A. R. Booth, G. G. Rives, C. H. Minge, Joel T. Daves, W. J. Bayersdorffer, J. V. Nolan, F. H. Gossman, E. Hibbette, W. F. Taylor, J. B. Ardis and W. M. Waddill. Endowment Rank, K. of P., Section 227, is presided over by Thomas B. Chase, with J. B. Ardis, V. P.; J. V. Nolan, Sec, and Dr. D. H. Billin, Med. Ex.

Osceola Tribe No. 7, I. O. R. M., was organized in September, 1879, with N. S. Allen, J. M. Cooper, W. E. Maples, H. Dellenberger, P. Barrier, J. M. Wahl, Henry Aiders, J. Murphy, J. W. Wheaton, E. A. Mastin and J. D. Bozeman, officers in-order of tent rank. In 1882 J. N. Hicks was sachem, and in 1889 John Wagner, with James Jenkins, recorder. Pontiac Tribe No. 12 was organized soon after Osceola Tribe, S. Kemp being sachem, and P. L. Asher chief of records in 1882.

The following named officers were elected in June, 1890: A. E. Meisner, Moise Hirsch, S. H. Hicks, Julius Bernstein and Samuel Dreyfuss. Mohawk No. 10 is the latest addition to the Shreveport tribes, but why this tribe overlooked the name Caddo in adopting a title is one of the mysteries of the order. The Caddos hunted here, before their improved white brothers came, and went hence to the mysterious hunting grounds soon after the white pioneers appeared on Caddo Prairie.

The U. A. O. of D. was organized in April, 1884, with J. L. Tilly, N. A.; M. S. Crain, V. A.; C. D. Hicks, Sec.; Samuel Dreyfuss, Treas.; Frank Denham, C.; J. W. Holt, 0. G.; Louis Wagner, I. G.; M. Bernstein, A. S. Jenkins, John Bacon and H. Cahn filling the junior offices; T. B, Price was D. D. A.

Louisiana Lodge No. 1, A. O. U. W., as its number denotes was the first established in this jurisdiction. Among its first members were R. T. Vinson, George Neil, George Maas, F. L. Hunt and C. H. Deal. This lodge elected the following officers, in lodge order, in June, 1890: A. L. Bares, H. Zwally, Charles Deal, R. T. Vinson, L. S. Grain, A. Dick, G. Andreola, D. H. Billin and John Bosch. Charity Lodge No. 9, claims among its early members Dr. J. J. Scott, B. Sour, C. Peroncel, B. P. Barker and Gus Kahn.

The officers elected by the Elks in May, 1890, I were M. C. Eltsner, E. R,; M. S. Jones, John S. Bacon and Simon Cooper, E. R. K.; B. Ripinsky, Sec; W. P. Ford, Treas.; H. A. W inter, Esq.; John R. Land, organist, R. A. Calhoun, I. G., and L. L. Tomkies, T.

The Morning Star Benevolent Association was incorporated March 30, 1871, with William Harper, William Slaughter, John Walker, Mahan Field, Moses Dudley, George Houston, Edward Gill, H. Swanson, George Black and others, corporators. Jordan Lodge No. 102, O. K. S. B., was organized December 2, 1872. Its past presiding officers were Moses Weinstock, David Cooper, Heyman Braunig, William Winter, H. Zoding, Louis Levy, E. Phelps, Sol Wolff, Isaac Barron, H. Herold, B. Landman, M. Ripinsky, M. Cohen, E. L. Hess, S. Braunig, S. Benjamin, R. Silverstein, A. Kahn. Its present officers are M. Ripinsky, Pres.; A. Brannig, V. P . ; A. Levy, Sec.; A. Wolf, Treas.; L. Groner, Con., and M. Newman, W. The present number of members is forty-seven.

Alpha Lodge No. 2501, K. of H., was organized July 8, 1881. The past dictators of this Lodge are A. R. Booth, F. H. Gossman, E. L. Hess, J. H. Sheppard, H. Herold, M. Kaufman, Simon Cahn, T. G. Ford, A. A. Lyon, Eli Blum, B. H. Lindsay, W. P. Ford and A. J. Bogel. The present officers in lodge rank are A. A. Lyon, William Brauer, A. Wolf, Abraham Levy, S. Cahn, E. Phelps, I. Saenger, Charles Boitz, Gus Kahn and S. Weil. There are ninety-four members reported in 1890.

Concord Lodge No. 2504 claims among its past dictators, J. H, Sheppard. Like Alpha Lodge, it is one of the leading secret organizations of the city. Magnolia Council, No. 749, A. L. of H., was organized October 19, 1881. The past commanders, in order of service, are Dr. J. C. Egan, R. H. Lindsay, T. B. Chase, A. H. Bogel and J. A. Bergman; while the officers for 1890, in order of rank, are R. H. Lindsay, H. C. Rogers, V. Grosjean, W. J. Bayersdorffer, J. V. Nolan, C. S. Steere, J. G. Newberry, W. T. McMahon, W.D. Scofield and W. R. Nicholson.

Equity Council, A. L. of H., claims among its old members N. Hirsch, A. A. Lyon, Sam Landrum, N. B. Murff, J. J. Scott, and J. D. Wagner. Louisiana Lodge No. 107, I. O. B. B., received its charter from the Grand Lodge at Cincinnati, and was organized November 23, 1870, with the following- named members: A. Teah, M. Samfield, William Winter, W. Weil, Jacob Weil, Ralph Kahn, Yoise Kahn, S. G. Dreyfuss, A. B. Weil, Samuel Weil, M. Kaufman, Jr., Sol. Simon, N. Hirsch, L. Bodenheimer, D. Morch, M. Bonipet, I. Weil, S. Levy, Jr., and Isaac Kahn. In the. year 1871 Louisiana Lodge with other lodges now comprising District Grand Lodge No. 7, withdrew from No. 2, and formed District Grand Lodge No. 7, which now consists of sixty-three lodges comprising about 2,400 members, in Alabama, Tennessee, Florida, Mississippi, Texas and Louisiana. The past presidents of Lodge 107 are William Winter, L. Bahr, N. Hirsch, B. Landman, A. Levy, M. J. Goldsmith, Gus Kaufman, Jules Dreyfuss, Louis Levy, S. Gordner, R. Goldberg, Ben Hotzman, I. Barron, H. Florsheim, H. Herold, L. Leibman, E. J. Leman, Samuel Benjamin and Samuel Dreyfuss in 1890. Eli Blum is the efficient secretary. The F. S. of I. Improved Order, was presided over in 1882 by Rev. E. L. Hess, with M. J. Goldsmith, secretary.

The I.O.O.F. so strong in other sections of the United States, is almost unknown in the cities and towns of Northwestern Louisiana. At Shreveport, Neith Lodge No. 21 has been carried on successfully for a number of years. Among its official members are Jules Weinstock, Henry Dillenberg, Thomas Phillips and Morris Ripinsky. In 1851 the old lodge established a cemetery within the new city cemetery.

The Select Knights of America have a division here, which gives promise of permanency. Among the official members are Moses Kaufman, B. J. Booder, D. C. Heine and J. S. Bacon. St. Joseph Branch, C. K. of A. is also a strong organization. Among the official members are Thomas Kelly, Capt. William Kinney, Jules Dubose, J. B. Slattery and J. J. Horan. The affairs of the knights are carried on so systematically that the order is winning its way steadily to a first place among the mutual benevolent associations of the country. The Benevolent Association of Confederate Veterans is noticed in the pages devoted to military affairs, while the Typographical Union No. 155 is mentioned in connection with journalism and journalists. The Colored lodges are Masons, Odd Fellows, and Knights of Pythias. The Knights of Gush organized in 1866, and was for some time a powerful organization for good or evil.

The Y.M.C.A. of ante helium days possessed a fair collection of books. At the beginning of the war, when the members rushed to arms, Vice-President T. H. Morris removed the books to a safe place, and in January, 1874, reported on their condition to the surviving members of the association, namely: Dr. T. J. Allen, president; T. H. Morris,T. A. Flanagan, F. A. Leonard, R. H. Lindsay, T. H. Iler, W. F. Bnckalew.W. J. Crowder, T. P. Chase, J. B. Durham, M. S. Jones, Dr. D. Lacy, R. G. Lowe, J. C. Moncure, Thomas Poland, J. H. Reynolds and H. G. Robertson. On January 10 the books were distributed among the members named. In 1888 an attempt to revive the association was successful, and in the fall of that year the building on Edwards and Milan Streets was erected at a cost of $10,000. The officers for 1889 were W. E. Hamilton, president; C. W. Gregg, secretary; T. H. Thurmond, treasurer; T. B. Chase, C. D. Hicks, J. H. Prescott and George A. Turner, board of managers; L. P. Jackson, general secretary. In 1890 the officers are J. H. Prescott, president; T. B. Chase, vice-president; V. L. Fulton, secretary; T. H. Thurmond, treasurer; H. L. Gregg, C. C. Raymond, W. E. Hamilton, board of managers. The present membership is 175.

The Young Women's Christian Association was organized in March, 1889. They have a bazaar in the room of the Y. M. C. A., to which many articles are donated for sale, with the proceeds of which a ward in the Charity Hospital is to be furnished and maintained. The officers of the association are: President, Mrs. Don Campbell; vice president, Mrs. H. L. Gregg; secretary, Miss Pinkie Jackson; treasurer, Miss Amanda Howell. The Hebrew Relief Society, now claiming eighty-eight members, was organized in March, 1885, with Benjamin Holzman, president; J. Dreyfuss and M. Cohen, vice presidents; H. Brannig, treasurer, and Rev. E. L. Hoss, secretary. In 1888 S, Wolf was elected secretary, this being the only change in the official list. About twenty years ago an association with a similar object was organized here. The Ladies Hebrew Relief Association is of a kindred character, was founded shortly after the association of male members.

The Tarn Verein, organized some years ago, was carried on successfully until the fall of 1889, when it was disbanded. B. Ripinsky was president from the beginning to the end; Sylvan Levy, secretary; A. Kirsch, treasurer, and Tony Auhren, instructor.

Mizpah Encampment, K. of St. J. and M., No. 57, claims to be older in its work than Masonry, dating back to the Scottish work in ante-reformation days, and founding its system on the anti-Catholic forms subsequently adopted. Among its first members here may be mentioned C. H. Cone, B. P. Barker, Fever L. Hunt, W. W. Battle and C. E. Peroncel.

The French Benevolent Association, composed of Hebrews and Gentiles of French descent, was organized in August, 1890, with the following officers: President, C. T. Richard; vice president, Raph Kahn; secretary, 0. P. Thenard; treasurer, Andrew Querbes. These officers and E. J. Leman, J. Ricon, L. B. Filliquier, B. Vasile and J. Gingras constitute the board of directors.

There are many literary and social clubs in the city, a few of which are strong, healthy associations. Church aid societies are as numerous as the churches, while the semi-religious organizations; known as the Y.M.C.A. and the Y. W. C. A., make their voices heard in sundry works, such as calls for prohibitory legislation, anti-lottery legislation, and legislation against every institution not exactly in consonance with their own constitutions.

In 1853 the yellow fever epidemic carried off about one hundred persons. On October 10, 1854, a case of fever was reported. In 1865-66 small-pox crept in, and in October, 1867, yellow fever carried off a large number. The epidemic of September, 1873, resulted in the death of 639 Whites and 120 Africans.

The Shreveport Charity Hospital, old, dates back to the days of so-called reconstruction. The report to Congress, in 1872, by Dr. Joe L. Monroe, of the Shreveport Charity and Marine Hospital, shows that during the years 1869-70-71 the State and parish donated about $30,000 to aid the infirmary, as it was then known. During that period 29,020 indigent sick were received and cared for.

The present hospital organization began in 1870, when the Legislature enacted that an annual appropriation of $10,000 should be made for hospital purposes, to Shreveport. The governor appointed Simon Levy, Jr., W. P. Ford and P. J. Trezevant, as representatives of the citizens; while Mayor N. W. Murphy and J. B. Smith, president of the police jury, were ex officio members of the board of managers, under the act. They organized with Mayor Murphy president, and appointed Dr. T. G. Ford surgeon and Dr. W. M. Turner superintendent. Mayor Currie succeeded Pres. Murphy, and Dwight Hall took the place of Mr. Smith, at reorganization. In April, 1885, Dr. Ashton and T. M. Allen took the respective places of Drs. Ford and Turner, but a year after Dr. Ford resumed his position. Under the act reorganizing the board, Gov. McEnery appointed seven citizens: J. J. Horan, W. B. Hamilton, Simon Levy, Jr., P. J. Trezevant, P. M. Hicks, Dr. B. A. Gray and J. B. Smith. The latter was elected president. In 1882 warrants for $20,000 were authorized by the Legislature, for the purpose of building. On June 7, that year, the State purchased from Mrs. F. E. Sewell four acres of land, in twelve-acre Lot 37, on Texas Avenue, corner of Murphy Avenue, costing $1,200, and on this ground the present building was erected in 1888-89. This house has a frontage of 215 feet, and is two stories in height. It was opened August 8, 1889, with Mrs. Taber matron, and Dr. D. M. Clay surgeon-in-charge. On his death Dr. J. W. Allen was appointed surgeon.

The hospital board of 1886 was reorganized in April, 1888, J. M. Bowles, T. B. Chase, W. A. Pleasants and R. Kahn, new members; and Dr. Gray, P. M. Hicks and Simon Levy, old members. P. H. Gosman took Walter Jackson's place as secretary. Allen's Infirmary was founded in 1872, by Drs. T. J. & J. W. Allen. The former began the practice of medicine at Shreveport in 1855. A branch of the Red Cross Society was formed at Shreveport in September, 1882, with L. R. Simmons, president; W. I. Brunei-, vice-president; P. J. Tregevant, secretary; L E. Carter, treasurer; Dr. G. E. Blackburn, Dr. W. L. Egan and A. B. Weaver, directors; John J. Horan, J. H. Stephens and Robert L. Her, advisory board.

Shreveport of olden days was the business centre for a large section of Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas. Hither came the cotton trains, long lines of wagons loaded with the products of the land, and here the owners bought their supplies of provisions, clothing and hardware. The railroads opened up new towns, and as railroad building progressed so did the town building increase, and the decline of the wagon-train followed quickly. It is said that the traders of outlying settlements hailed this new order of affairs with delight, for they charged the Shreveport merchants with the crime of selling small packages of goods to non-dealers at wholesale prices.

The merchants of Shreveport paid to the Red River Navigation Companies for freight in 1881, no less than $152,533.88, while the amount paid to the Texas & Pacific Railroad Company was $523,282.57, or a total of $675,816.45. Men speak of the bygone days as if they wish for their return, but the wish is far from real, for they know that with the disappearance of the prairie schooners or wagon trains, disorganization in trade and society disappeared, and the civilizing influences of the railroad, with its regular schedules of time and charges, came to build up a new and greater system of trade. The statistics published in the Times, for the year ending September, 1889, point out tin mistakably the healthy growth of the city's trade. There it is stated that the imports of merchandise, groceries and provisions of all kinds, liquors, cigars and tobacco, agricultural implements, machinery, hardware, wagons, buggies, etc., amounted in the aggregate to nearly $15,000,000, the value of cotton exported to $5,000,000, and the value of hides, tallow, wool, wax, lumber, cotton seed oil, meal and cake, etc., to $5,000,000. This is only the beginning of modern Shreveport. The establishment of cotton manufactories and other industrial houses, must come as a natural result of her location in the very midst of a great producing country. It is one of the mysteries of the last decade how Shreveport can not now boast of one of the greatest cotton mills in this country.

George Gray, Indian agent, fifteen miles below the site of Shreveport, was here in 1825. In his correspondence with the land department, he refers to .the rights of the Caddo Indians to their lands on Red River, under Spanish and French titles, and protested against the following intruders: Leonard Dyson*, Samuel Morris*, B. Poira*, Henry Stockman*, Peter Stockman*, Philip Frederick, Moses Robertson*, James Farris*, Ceasar Wallace*, John Armstrong*, Old Lay, James Wallace, James Coats, Charles Myers and Manuel Frichell. On August 11, 1825, the land commissioner decided that the intruders whose names are marked thusly -*-, were entitled to their lands. In May, 1865, there was assembled at Shreveport all that was left of the Confederate government. Kirby Smith had given over the command to Simon B. Buckner, and he, with Green, went to New Orleans to surrender to Canby. The latter dispatched Gens. Herron, Green, Brent, Buckner, and a large fleet to Shreveport, but on their arrival there they found Shelby determined to resist surrender, and did not go ashore until the following day. Herron risked the landing then without force, told the object of his mission, and assured the 20,000 armed men that he came to parole them, and supply them with provisions. He was received with cheers, and at once asked for the cooperation of the Confederate officers in issuing paroles. He next organized measures for defending the citizens from robbery and rapine, sent home the Missourians and Texans, next the Arkansans and Alabamians and then paroled the native soldiers.

T. Alexander is a lawyer, of note in Shreveport and vicinity, and, although a native of the State of Louisiana, he was born in Catahoula Parish to Dr. John S. Alexander, who was born and educated on "Blue Grass" soil. When a young man he entered the Louisville (Ky.) Medical College, from which ho afterward graduated, and up to the time of his death, which occurred in 1855 of yellow fever, he was an active medical practitioner. The immediate subject of this biography received his education in the State University of Louisiana, and, being a young man of excellent attainments and of an ambitious and determined disposition, he made rapid progress in his studies, and was liked and admired by his instructors as well as fellow students. Having a predilection for the practice of law, he made that his study for some time, and after a thorough preparation and upon graduating from the law department of the State University of Louisiana, he was admitted to the bar at New Orleans. He subsequently came to Shreveport, and in the practice of his profession he is now the junior member of the firm of Blanchard & Alexander, a name that is synonymous with legal knowledge and sagacity. Mr. Alexander has displayed much ability in the practice of his chosen calling, and has won the reputation of being a brilliant, forcible and convincing speaker.

Dr. Hartwell Alison. The profession of the physician is one which operates in time of need in arresting and alleviating the most acute pains and ailments to which the human body is heir, and therefore deserves the most appreciative consideration on the part of the public In this profession the gratitude of hundreds is due to the skill and talent of Dr. Alison, who has been an active practicing physician of Bayou La Chute since 1873. He was born in Dallas County, Ala., in 1847, and is a son of Dr. Lockwood and A. J. (Hartwell) Alison, who were born in South Carolina in 1807 and 1826, respectively, their marriage taking place in Alabama about the year 1845. They came to De Solo Parish, La., in 1850, and are still living there, the father having been a practicing physician the last sixty-four years of his life. He is a graduate of the medical college of South Carolina, and inherits English blood of his father, Jacob Alison, who died in South Carolina. The mother's father, Jesse Hartwell D. D., was born in Massachusetts in 1795, and died in Mount Lebanon, La., in 1859, a minister of the Missionary Baptist Church, and for many years a teacher, being president of Mount Lebanon University at the time of his death. His wife passed from life about 1880. Dr. L. Alison was married twice, his second wife being the mother of the subject of this sketch, he being the eldest of their nine children. He was educated in De Soto Parish and Mount Lebanon, and graduated from the medical department of the University of Louisville in 1872, settling almost immediately afterward at Marshall, Tex., where he remained one year, then came to Bayou La Chute, which has been his home ever since, his practice being very extensive. He served one year during the latter part of the late Civil War, being a member of Company C, Eighth Louisiana Cavalry, and was in the engagement at Mansfield. He was married in 1868 to Miss E. G , a daughter of D. R. W. and M. E. S. Mclver, who were born in South Carolina. Prom that State they moved to Alabama, and in 1855 to De Soto Parish, La., where the father passed to his long home in 1863, and the mother in 1880. Mr. Mclver was a Baptist minister for many years, and was a worthy and able divine. Mrs. Alison was born in Alabama, and she has borne the Doctor six children, one son and five daughters. The Doctor is one of the leading physicians of this section of the country, and he and his wife are honored members of the Missionary Baptist Church.

Col. C. H. Ardis is one of the leading merchants in the South, and the firm to which he belongs is one of the most successful in the State of Louisiana, their business amounting to over half a million dollars per annum, and is increasing all the time, doubling itself in the last five years. Col. Ardis, the senior member of the firm of Ardis & Co., was born in Edgefield District, S. C, February 3, 1828, his parents, Matthias and Louisa (Nail) Ardis, being also born there. They removed to the "Creole State'' in 1840, and located in what is now Bienville (then Claiborne) Parish, at Mount Lebanon, the trip thither being made in wagons. Mr. Ardis purchased a large tract of land, on which he continued to make his home until his death, which occurred in 1800, his wife having passed from life seven years earlier. To them a family of eight children was born, five of whom are living. Col. C. H. Ardis was brought to this State in his youth, and as he was reared to manhood on his father's plantation, the advantages of the common schools only were received. Notwithstanding this drawback, he possessed a bright and active intellect, and began his independent career as a clerk. After continuing in this capacity until 1849, he went to Minden, La., where he opened an establishment of his own, and successfully conducted it until the opening of the Rebellion, when he sold out and joined Gov. Moore's staff, and served on his and Gen. Allen's staff until the close of the war, when he returned to Minden and resumed business. After remaining in that place until 1873 he removed to Shreveport, and in 1880 opened a wholesale house, which he still conducts, his trade extending over a radius of 100 miles from the town. The firm deals in groceries, produce, bagging and ties, and in connection with this they handle a large amount of cotton annually.

Special attention is given to sugar, molasses and rice, and in order to demonstrate the large amount of these commodities the firm handles, it can be stated that in the month of March over 800 barrels of sugar were sold. The store is located at Nos. 616, 618 and 620 Levee Street, is convenient to both railroads and steamboats, and is the largest establishment of the kind in Shreveport, the frontage being sixty feet and the depth 150. They two men constantly keep on the road, and are doing a business which adds much to the prestige Shreveport enjoys as a commercial center. Mr. Ardis is accounted one of the representative business men of the State and besides his business owns real estate in the city and parish. He is the financier of the firm, having charge of the offices, and his son, J. B. Ardis, is the general manager of the business, J. J. Booth being the other member of the firm. Col. Ardis was married in 1850, his wife being Miss Harriet L. Hamilton, by whom he has had three children: Mrs. Mary L. Parker, J. B. Ardis and Mrs. Pennie Mills. Mrs. Ardis is deceased, having been a member of the Baptist Church, of which Col. Ardis is also a member. He belongs to the A. L. of H., and is a director in the First National Bank, his son being a director of the Shreveport Fire Insurance Company and a member of the Board of Trade. Both Col. Ardis and his son are able financiers, and by their indomitable energy and close application to business, they have built up a trade which is magnificent in its proportions.

Ed Ball is a young business man of Shreveport, La., who has made his own way in the world, and is intelligent, enterprising and industrious. He is at the present time manager of the Consolidated Ice Company & Bottling Works of Shreveport and Monroe, which company operates with a capital stock of $60,000, and that he is thoroughly versed in all the requirements of his business, and is an indefatigable worker, is well known. He was born in Randolph County, Ga., in March, 1857, to Ed and Harriet (Howard) Ball, natives of South Carolina and Georgia, respectively. The father was a colonel in the Fifty-first Georgia Regiment, and was killed by a gun shot in the battle of Bull Run. He was a planter the greater portion of his life, but at the time of his enlistment in the army he was clerk of the district court in Georgia. His widow survives him, and makes her home with the subject of this sketch, in Shreveport, he being the only survivor of her four children. He remained in the State of Georgia until he attained his sixteenth year, then went with his mother to Ouachita Parish, La., where he followed planting until 1888, after which he moved to Shreveport, which place has since been his home. The ice factory of this place was established in 1888, its capacity being twenty tons every twenty-four hours, and in this establishment Mr. Ball secured a good and paying position. The factory runs nine months in the year, and fifteen hands are employed, the trade extending into Arkansas and Texas, as well as throughout Northern Louisiana, a radius of 125 miles.

The product of this establishment has an excellent reputation, and those who receive their supply from this factory are thoroughly satisfied in every respect. This establishment was put up at a cost of $50,000, and is supplied with an absorption machine, which has a tine capacity. The bottling works wore added soon afterward, being under the same roof as the ice factory, and in addition to manufacturing and bottling all kinds of mineral waters, soda water, ginger ale, they make a specialty of bottling beer, and employ twenty-five men. Mr. Ball is one of the stockholders of the concern, and also has an interest in the factory at Monroe, being the general manager of both. He is thoroughly posted in both branches of the business, and the coming winter expects to increase the capacity of the plant at Monroe. Mr. Ball married Miss Olivette Lanier, by whom he has had three children, two now living: Carrie and Edward. Jeremiah H. Beaird, planter and merchant of Ward 8, Caddo Parish, La., was born near Natchitoches, in 1830, to Joseph and Mary Charlotte (Morrell) Beaird, the former born in Tennessee in 1808, and the latter in Louisiana in 1812. They were married near Natchitoches, and in 1837 came to what was then Caddo, but is now Bed River Parish, but soon returned to Natchitoches, but in 1842 came back to Caddo Parish, and in 1847 purchased the farm on which the subject of this sketch now resides and on which the father died in 1865, his widow dying in Red River Parish in 1889, she being an earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal Church at the time of her death.

Mr. Beaird was a planter by occupation, and at one time held the office of justice of the peace and was postmaster of Bayou La Chute, being one of the early settlers of the Bed River country above Natchitoches. The paternal grandfather was killed by the Indians in a massacre, and his widow afterward removed to Alexandria, La., where she was one of the first settlers, her death occurring near Natchitoches. John Morrell, the maternal grandfather, was born in Massachusetts, and when a young man came to Louisiana and was married in Rapides Parish, settling afterward in Natchitoches, where he spent the rest of his days, having served in the War of 1812, being with Jackson at New Orleans. Jeremiah H. Beaird was the eldest of six children, was educated on a farm, but received only about one year's schooling. At the age of twenty-one he began following the occupation of overseeing, continuing about nine years, but at the breaking out of the war he gave up this calling to enlist in Company A, First Louisiana Infantry, and served with the Army of Virginia, participating in the engagements around Richmond, his services being utilized as a sharpshooter. On August 26, 1863, he was severely wounded and paroled, but before he reached home he was captured at Marion, Ala. He was shortly afterward paroled, and returned home, being unfit for further service in the field. He was married in 1866, his wife, formerly Miss Mollie H. Brown, being a daughter of Henry and Harriet Brown, the former born in North Carolina in 1812 and the latter in Georgia in 1822, their marriage taking place in the latter State. From there they moved to Bienville Parish in 1849, and in 1865 to Nevada County, Ark., where they died in 1890 and 1887, respectively, the father being a fruit grower by occupation. Mrs. Beaird was born in Georgia, and her union with Mr. Beaird has resulted in the birth of six children, one son and four daughters now living. For the past twenty-live years Mr. Beaird has resided on his present farm, which is about thirty miles below Shreveport, and he is now the owner of 2,719 acres of land, of which 700 acres are under cultivation, and on which he raises over 380 bales of cotton annually. He also conducts a plantation store, and in both callings is doing exceptionally well, being considered one of the prominent men of this section. He has tilled the office of justice of the peace a number of years, also postmaster, and socially belongs to the A. F. & A. M. His wife is a Methodist and a worthy lady in every respect.

William J. Beaird is a planter, residing in Ward No. 8, of Caddo Parish, La., but was born near Natchitoches in 1830, receiving his education in the country schools and at Marshall, Tex. In 1802 he joined a company of Louisiana cavalry, but after a short service was discharged, on account of ill health, but supplied a substitute, and after recovering rejoined the service, and operated in Louisiana until the close of the war, participating in the fight at Mansfield and in numerous skirmishes. On December 29, 1858 his union to Miss Mary A., a daughter of Philip and P. C. May, took place, they having moved from Tennessee to Texas, thence to Bossier Parish, where Mr. May died prior to the war, his wife's death occurring in Caddo Parish. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Beaird a family of eleven children have been born, eight sons and one daughter being now alive. Since his union Mr. Beaird has lived on a part of the old home farm, and is one of the leading and prosperous planters of this section of the country, in connection with which calling he conducts a plantation store. His wife is a member of the Baptist Church. For a history of Mr. Beaird's parents see sketch of J. H. Beaird.

James C. Belcher is a native of Abbeville District, S. C, his birth occurring September 20, 1842, his parents, James M. and Mary Frances (Nesley) Belcher, being also born in that State. James C. received his education in his native State and in Augusta, Ga., and in April, 1861, he joined the Confederate army, being a member of Company C, Seventh Regiment, from that State. After remaining in the infantry fourteen mouths, Lee's army was reorganized, and he. became a member of Company G, Second South Carolina Cavalry, of Lee's army, participating in many battles, among which may be mentioned first Manasses, Yorktown, where he was accidently wounded by one of his comrades, and in a number of other minor engagements. After the close of the war he farmed some, then gave his attention to the mercantile business, and later was engaged in purchasing cotton. He' came to Bossier Parish, La., in 1867, and followed farming until 1884, when he entered the employ of Capt. J. H. Nattin, with whom he has since been connected, having charge of the store and plantation of Wild Lucia. In 1875 he was married to Miss Elizabeth R. Gleadney, who was born in 1851, and died in 1884, and to them two children were born: Gertrude and Mary M. Mr. Belcher is a Democrat, and is acknowledged to be one of the most enterprising citizens of Caddo Parish. His father was a wholesale merchant in Augusta, Ga., and died in July, 1857, at the age of thirty-nine, his wife dying in 1844.

August J. Bogel, druggist, Shreveport, La. There is no branch of business more important in the whole list of occupations than that of the druggist. A prominent and representative establishment devoted to this branch of industry is that of Mr. August J. Bogel, who for thirty years has been before the public in this line, and whose house is one of the oldest and finest in Shreveport. Mr. Bogel, was born in Hanover, Germany, on March 12, 1836, and his parents, Nicholas C. and Julia (Vogel) Bogel, are natives of the same country, where their entire lives were passed. August J. Bogel remained in his native country until fourteen years of age, and in 1851 sailed for America, landing at New York. From there he went to New Orleans, went through the yellow fever epidemic of 1853, and in 1856 he went to Franklin, La., where he established himself in the drug business. He remained there, meeting with fair success, until the breaking out of the war, when he went to Baton Bouge, La., and there remained until cessation of hostilities. After this he moved to Bayou Sara and there made his home for three years. In January, 1874, he came to Shreveport and here he has since continued the drug business. He has the largest drug store in the city, and does an extensive business, both retail and jobbers' trade. Mr. Bogel is a thorough druggist, having, as was mentioned before, been in the drug business for over thirty years. Employment is given to several clerks of experience, and one has but to visit his mammoth establishment to judge of the business that is done. Mr. Bogel has with all credit to himself been a member of the board of health, and is a man who holds the confidence and respect of the people. He was married at Baton Rouge in 1855, to Miss Julia Woodworth, and they have but one child, William W. Mr. Bogel, with his excellent wife, is a member of the Episcopal Church. William W., the only child, left the parental roof in 1875, went to Western Tex., and is now a resident of Prisidio County, where he enjoys excellent health.

He was married to Miss Sadie Newton, of San Antonia, Tex., in 1881, and is the father of six interesting children: Jessie, August J., Woodworth W., Gillitzen N., Edward and Amos Graves. He is the owner of a large sheep ranch, is a thorough stockman and controls an immense business. Capt. Joseph Boisseau, a cotton planter and factor, and owner and dealer in real estate at Shreveport, La., has in his veins the blood of the old French Huguenots who came to this country on account of their religious belief, taking up their abode in the State of Virginia. Capt. Boisseau was born in Dinwiddie County, Va., January 23, 1829, to Josoph and Julia (Rives) Boisseau, who were also Virginians, the father being an honest and fairly successful tiller of the soil. In the winter of 1848 he moved to Harrison County, Tex., and continued to make his home in the Lone Star State until his death, which occurred about 1868. After this event his widow removed to Louisiana, and here she passed from life in 1874,; having borne a family of eight children, five of whom are living: Mrs. Ann E. Jones, Capt. Joseph, Mrs. Mary Tucker, William and James. Capt. Joseph Boisseau was reared principally in the State of Tennessee, his early days being spent on his father's plantation, and in that State his early education was acquired. In September, 1849, he came to Shreveport, La., and secured employment as a clerk in a warehouse, being engaged in billing and shipping, his employer being E. C. Hart (now deceased). He remained with him until 1853, then began steam boating on the Upper Red River and down to New Orleans, and in time became commander of the steamers "Marion," "Newsboy" and " Trent." He continued to follow this calling with fair success until 1861, then enlisted in the First Louisiana Regiment of Caddo Rifles, and served the cause he espoused faithfully until November of that year, when he put in a substitute and went to New Orleans and purchased the steamer " Trent," expecting the blockade to be raised, and fitted her up for that purpose. The blockade failing, he ran his boat in the service of the Confederate government until some time in 1863, when he sold the Trent, and was afterward appointed by Jefferson Davis as pilot of the gunboat Missouri, which had been built at Shreveport. This boat he took to Alexandria, to defend the forts at that place, and was there kept until the final surrender, the Captain receiving his parole on this boat. He then became pilot of the steamer Cotton, that took the generals in command of the trans-Mississippi Department to the mouth of Red River, where the final terms of surrender were made, their names being Buckner, Price, Maj. Means and Lieut. Carter. After surrendering, the boat Cotton was given up to the Federal officers at Shreveport. Capt. Boisseau then returned to Shreveport, La., and embarked in the wholesale grocery and cotton business, the firm of Walsh & Boisseau being established, and they continued to do business together until 1870, when Capt. Boisseau became sole proprietor, and as such has since continued.

He has seen Shreveport grow from a village to its present admirable proportions, and he has always identified himself with its interests in every way. He owns about 6,000 acres of fine farming land, controls as much more, and is the owner of some valuable business buildings in the city, which are located on Front and Milan Streets, and several choice residence lots, which he offers for sale on the most reasonable terms. He is one of the heaviest taxpayers in the city, is doing well in every enterprise in which he is engaged, and is one of the substantial and honored citizens of this section, for he is public spirited, upright in every worthy particular, and is kind, generous and manly at all times.

He has never been an aspirant for office, but has paid strict attention to the details of his business, and as a result, is one of the wealthy men of this section. He is a member and director of the Cotton Exchange, and is also one of the directors of the Commercial National Bank. He was married in 1800 to Miss Josephine E. Boisseau, of Virginia, by whom he has a family of four sons and three daughters: Joseph, Jr., Nettie P., Elizabeth S., Richie W., James H., Richard W. and Robert C. Mrs. Boisseau is a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and socially he belongs to the Masonic fraternity and the K. of P. Marcus A. Bonner is a prosperous planter of Caddo Parish, La., but was born in Morgan County, Ga., in 1833, being a son of Capt. Thomas S. and Martha (Cleveland) Bonner, the former of whom was born in Virginia, in 1811 and the latter in North Carolina, it is supposed. Their marriage was celebrated in Morgan County, Ga., and in that State the father passed from life about 1874, his wife dying some two years later, both having been earnest and consistent members of the Missionary Baptist Church from youth up. Mr. Bonner was a well-known planter, and being a man of undeniable intelligence and a prominent politician he was elected to represent Morgan County in the State Legislature of Georgia about 1833 or 1834. He was a captain in one of the Indian Wars and inherited Welsh and Scotch blood from his ancestors. John Cleveland, the mother's father, was born and spent his life in North Carolina, and his father was Gen. William Cleveland, a soldier of the Revolutionary War. Marcus A. Bonner was the seventh of eight sons who lived to be grown, there being twelve sons in the family, and only three of them are living at the present time. He was educated in Musser University of Georgia, and in 1859 came to Claiborne Parish, La., and in 1800 was married to Miss Araminta L., a daughter of Joseph H. and Mary Jeter, who were born in Virginia and North Carolina, and died in La Grange, Tenn.. and Texas, respectively. Mrs. Bonner was born in Tennessee and died in Louisiana in 1865 after having borne two children, both of whom are deceased. His marriage to his second wife took place in 1866, she being Miss Mary G., a sister of his first wife, but she, too, passed from life in 1873, having borne two children, a son now living. Mr. Bonner was married to his present wife in 1880, she being Mrs. Sarah C. Bates, a daughter of Joseph Beaird, whose sketch appears on another page of this work. She was born in Caddo Parish, but received the principal part of her education in Baton Rouge. In 1804 Mr. Bonner joined Company D, Twenty-eighth Louisiana Infantry, but was soon after discharged and placed in the quartermaster's department with headquarters at Homer, serving faithfully until the close of the war. In 1872 he removed to Dallas County, Tex., and after being a resident of that State for seven years he returned to Louisiana, and has since been a resident of his present excellent farm. He is the owner of 716 acres of land in two tracts, and has about 225 acres under cultivation, located four miles below Bayou La Chute. Mr. Bonner was the postmaster at Homer at the breaking out of the war.

Dr. A. R. Booth, physician and surgeon, Shreveport, La., is one of the popular physicians of Caddo Parish, does great credit to the profession and has a paying practice in this city and country. His parents, A. N. and Susan A. (Boeder) Booth, were natives of Louisville, Ky., and Cincinnati, Ohio, respectively. They emigrated to Louisiana in 1842, located in Baton Rouge, and here the father became a successful planter. He was a representative citizen, was public spirited, and was at one time Secretary of the State. He held a number of offices and figured quite prominently in politics. He was one of the seven men in the parish who voted against secession. His death occurred in 1867. The mother bad died in 1863. Their family consisted of ten children, two by the first union and eight by the second. The children by the first marriage were William S. (mayor of Baton Rouge, La.) and Andrew B. (who resides in New Orleans, La.). Of the eight children born to the second union there are only four besides our subject now living, Jewett and three sisters. Dr. A. B. Booth was born in East Baton Rouge in January, 1844, and grew to manhood on his father's plantation. He was educated at the Kentucky University at Lexington, and began the study of medicine at quite an early age. In 1874 he graduated at the University of Louisville in a class of 113 graduates and took the medal for general proficiency. He obtained his position in opposition to the faculty's set views on the subject of yellow fever, which was the subject of the Doctor's thesis. In March, 1874, he began practicing at Shreveport, La., and here he has since resided. In a very short time he had built up a large and lucrative practice and is still enjoying the same. He was health officer from 1874 to 1878, and was appointed by Gov. McEnery coroner of Caddo Parish to till an unexpired term. He is a member of the State Medical Association, also Shreveport Medical Society and American Society of Microscopists. He was married in 1874, to Miss Mattie C., daughter of Prof. Samuel G. Mullins, of Louisville, Ky., and the fruits of this union have been two living children, Mamie and Susie. Socially the Doctor is a member of the K. of H., the A. O. U. W., K. of P. and in the latter order he is a past grand chancellor and was a supreme representative for two terms. For four years he was medical examiner-in-chief of the order. He has always taken a deep interest in his societies and has devoted a great deal of his time to them. Mr. and Mrs. Booth are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The Doctor is now Idling by appointment from the Hon. Secretary of the Treasury, the office of assistant army surgeon, Marine Hospital service, at the port of Shreveport.

John Caldwell, liveryman, Shreveport, La. livery stable is a most essential institution, both for pleasure and convenience. To be able to command at tiny moment a horse and rig for a drive in the country, or for business or other purposes, is a privilege, the value of which can not be too highly estimated. Foremost among the liveries of Shreveport is the well-known resort of Mr. John Caldwell, located at the corner of Market and Travis Streets, and measures 80 x 150 feet. Fine livery outfits, carriages and phaetons are furnished promptly on order, and omnibuses, baggage and drummers' wagons run to and from all trains, or will call to any part of the city. Stock is bought and sold on commission, and a large mule market is run in connection with the stable, about twenty carloads being handled annually, besides a large number of horses. Mr. Caldwell is one of the oldest residents of Shreveport, having resided in the city ever since 1853; established the present business in 1855, and has been in it continuously ever since. Aside from this he is the owner of considerable real estate in the city, and is largely interested in planting iu the neighboring parishes.

He was born in Europe, February 21, 1836, and his parents, John C. and Mary (Reicherter) Caldwell, were also natives of Europe, both of whom died there. John Caldwell came to America with an uncle in his infancy. The uncle settled in South Carolina, near Newberry, and here our subject remained until 1853, receiving a good common school education at this place. He assisted on the farm, and at the hotel and livery business until 1853, then came to Shreveport, La., where he worked with a farmer, and was satisfied with any employment to get an honest living, until 1855, and from that time went into the livery business until the breaking out of the war. In 1801 he enlisted in Porter's command of Arkansas, was wounded at the battle of Oak Hill, and returned to Shreveport. He then enlisted in Capt. Denison's Cavalry company and served until the. close of the war. He had charge of all the transportation of Capt. Johnson's Assistant Quartermaster Department, C. S., and had over 6,000 head of horses and mules. After the surrender he returned to Shreveport and re-embarked in the livery business. This enterprise he has carried on ever since, and has been quite successful. He keeps about fifty head of tine horses and mules in his mammoth barns, and a number of first-class vehicles. He is also engaged in planting, and owns about 4,000 acres of land on which he raises cotton, corn, hay and vegetables. He came to Shreveport without a dollar, and he now has good paying property, all the result of push and energy. Socially he is a member of the Masonic and Odd Follow orders and of the Fire Department. He was married in 1873, to Miss Julia Lattier, who is a consistent member of the Catholic Church.

J. H. Calvert, druggist. Among the names which give standing to Shreveport, and conduce to the welfare of society, is that of Mr. Calvert, who is the proprietor of one of the best known establishments of the kind in the city. For the purity of goods and fair dealing, his reputation has long been established, and accordingly his trade has assumed large proportions. He was born in Adams County, Miss., May 28, 1845, to John and Nancy (Galtney) Calvert, natives of Mississippi. The paternal grandfather, William, was a pioneer of Franklin County, Miss., and as a planter accumulated a large fortune. His death occurred in the same county. His son, John, followed in his footsteps, became a planter, and passed to his long home in Franklin County, in 1853, his widow dying in 1868, in Natchez, Miss. Of a family of five children born to them, only two are living: J. H. Calvert and a sister. J. H. Calvert was reared in Washington, Adams County, Miss., and in this State his early scholastic advantages were enjoyed, he being first an attendant of Jefferson College, and later of Forest Home Academy, in Kentucky. While he was attending this institution the war came up, and he started for home, boarding the last train that left Louisville for Natchez, and immediately after reaching his father's roof he enlisted in the sixty days' service, and helped to build the fortifications around Bowling Green, Ky., Gen. Reuben Davis, of Mississippi, being in command. After the expiration of his time of enlistment his company was disbanded, but ho immediately enlisted in the Natchez Southrons for three years, with Capt. R. A. Inge, and after serving in a very satisfactory manner until 1864, he was honorably discharged, on account of sickness. He was in all the principal engagements up to the time of his discharge, and although he was scarcely seventeen at the time of his first enlistment, he made a gallant and faithful soldier. He was in very poor health for several years after the close of the war, but, notwithstanding, he was actively engaged in merchandising in Mississippi until 1875, when he moved to Milliken's Bend, Madison Parish, La., where he continued to follow the above-mentioned calling until 1882, after which he came to Shreveport, and embarked in the drug business with Dr. J. F. O'Leary. At the end of four years Mr. Calvert purchased his partner's interest, and was in business alone until 1887, when he was so unfortunate as to be burned out. He soon after embarked in the business with John L. Hodges, but at the end of a year, sold out to his partner, and purchased the stock and fixtures where he is now located, and is doing a prosperous and paying business. He is one of the leading spirits of Shreveport, and has proven himself a public-spirited citizen in every respect since locating here. He is a member of the Confederate Association of Veterans.

Judge L. E. Carter, notary public and justice of the peace at Shreveport, La., although born in Jessamine County, Ky., November 20, 1824, has been a resident of this section since 1851, and has ever been one of the foremost men to further the interests of Caddo parish. He inherits Scotch and English blood of his parents, Ephraim and Mary A. (Dedman) Carter, the former of whom was born in Vermont, and the latter in the "Blue Grass State.'' Upon first removing from his native State, the father settled in Illinois, but moved from there to Kentucky, where he formed the acquaintance of Miss Dedman, and married here, ever afterward making his home on " Blue Grass " soil, where he passed from life, having followed the occupation of a saddler. His wife died in De Soto Parish, La. Her father was a soldier in the War of 1812. Judge L. E. Carter spent his youth in Grant County, Ky., near Cincinnati, Ohio, and in addition to acquiring a fair knowledge of books in the common schools near his home, he learned the saddler's trade in his father's shop), his knowledge of the work, however, being acquired before, he attained his fourteenth year. He followed this trade, with fair financial results, until he was twenty-three years of age, then began merchandising in Kentucky, but removed from that State in 1849 to New Orleans, where he worked as a clerk until 1851. At the end of this time he came to Shreveport, La., and here opened a mercantile establishment which he successfully conducted for a number of years, or until 1874, since which time he has been in his present office. When the war became an assured fact, he, in 1861, enlisted in the Third Mississippi Regiment, and served until the close of war when he returned home and resumed business. His career as a soldier was marked by fearless and intrepid courage, and upon the termination of hostilities he had the consciousness of having faithfully performed every duty. In 1874 he was elected to the office of justice of the peace, and up to the present time has served continuously, and it can with truth be said of him that he has discharged his duties in a very efficient manner, and is a high-principled and trustworthy official.

He is devoted to his friends, his interest in the prosperity of his parish is undoubted, and his life has been conspicuous by his many kind and charitable deeds. His marriage was consummated in 1850, at which time Miss Bettie H. Rainey, a native of Mississippi, became his wife. To them a family of seven children was born: Everet H. (a resident of Fort Worth, Tex.), Foster (a resident of San Diego, Cal.), Leon M. (whose sketch follows this), Bettie C. (of Los Angeles, Cal.), Rainey, Harry B. and Hnlcey. The family are among the leading citizens of Shreveport, and are regular attendants of the Presbyterian Church.

Leon M. Carter is the proprietor of a wholesale and retail drug and stationery establishment at Shreveport, La., which is recognized as one of the most popular and handsome places of the kind in the State, the proprietor holding a high position in the estimation of the public. He was born in the city in which he is now doing business on July 11, 1855, being a son of L. E. Carter, whose sketch appears above. He was reared at this place, but received the greater part of his education in the city of New Orleans, and at an early day entered the drug store of P. H. Kyes & Co., of Shreveport, where he remained three years, obtaining a thorough knowledge of the business while with this firm and during the subsequent two years which he spent in a like establishment belonging to Peter I. Trezevant. In 1879, being thoroughly versed in all the details of the business, he opened a drug store of his own at his present stand, and has built up a large local business, his trade also extending over a distance of seventy-five miles in the surrounding country, customers coming from Eastern Texas and Southern Arkansas, as well as from all parts of his native State. His drug store is on the corner of Texas and Spring Streets, and his stationery establishment is next door. A job printing department is also run in connection with the stationery and book store, and all kinds of work is neatly and handsomely done. His drug store is replete with all necessary appliances for a first class establishment, and paints, oils and window glass are also carried in stock. The store covers an area of 50 x 150 feet, is centrally located on the principal corner of the city, and as Mr. Carter is a thoroughly competent pharmacist, agreeable and courteous in his manners, and has always manifested his desire to please and accommodate his patrons, he fully deserves his prosperity. He has been prominent in all local affairs, is a stirring, wide-awake citizen, and is popular with all. He is a member of the board of health, is deputy collector of customs, and is treasurer of the Shreveport Fire Department. He is also one of the directors of the Board of Trade, is United States collector of this port, and is lessee of the handsome opera house of Shreveport. In the month of July, 1879, his marriage to Miss Mattie L. Parsons, a native of the town, took place, and to them have been born two interesting children; Josie and Livie.

Thomas B. Chase, president of the Merchants & Farmers Bank, broker and insurance agent, is a native of Florida, born on November 29, 1843, and is the son of George E. and Elizabeth (Flower) Chase, the father a native of Boston, Mass., and the mother of New Orleans, La. The father was an army officer and held the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel of the United States army, stationed at Pensacola, Fla. He had been stationed at Pensacola for a number of years previous to his death, which occurred in 1844. The same year his widow, with the family, removed to New Orleans, La., where her death occurred in 1802. They were the parents of three children: Mrs. Anna G. Hodges (of New Orleans), William P. (of Shreveport), and our subject.

Thomas B. Chase, the youngest of this family, secured a good education in the schools of New Orleans, and then clerked for a short time, or until the breaking out of the war. In 1862 he enlisted in Crescent Regiment, and served two years. He was wounded at the battle of Shiloh, was captured, and recaptured by his own regiment while in the Federal lines. He was taken to New Orleans, was there when the city was taken, and was again returned to the Federal line, but was paroled. The last year of service he was detailed by Gen. Kirby Smith at headquarters. Returning to Shreveport after the war, he kept books for seventeen years, eleven years for Hicks & Howell. He then embarked in the insurance and brokerage business, and has carried it on ever since. He represents nine insurance companies, whose combined capital is nearly $30,000,000, while the New York Life Insurance Company, of which he is agent, has a capital of $100,000,000. He was made president of the Merchants & Farmers Bank in February, 1890. He is a member of the board of administrators of Charity Hospital, and is one of the board of managers of the Y. M. C. A. He is a Knight Templar in the Masonic fraternity, and is past master. He is also a member of the K. of P., and represented his lodge in the Grand Lodge, and was recently elected vice-president of the Shreveport Cotton Exchange. He is secretary and treasurer of St. Mark's Episcopal Church. Mr. Chase was married in 1808 to Miss Helen S. Cline, a native of Mississippi. He has been a resident of Shreveport for twenty-sis years, and is interested in the city's advancement in many ways. He is the owner of some real estate.

Dr. D. M. Clay (deceased). Nature seems to have intended Dr. Clay for an exceptionally long and more than ordinarily useful life but, alas, for human hopes and expectations, while just in the meridian of life and during the time of his greatest usefulness, his career was closed forever. He was born in Wilkinson County, Ga., December 25, 1837, and at an early age entered and graduated from the medical department of the University of New York, leaving that institution as an M. D. in 1857. He soon began the practice of his profession in his native county, but upon the bursting of the war cloud which had so long hovered over the country, he left his home and entered the service of the Confederate Government as a surgeon, and discharged his duties faithfully and efficiently until the close of hostilities in 1805. He then removed westward, settled in Shreveport, La., and being a man of much ability and energy he was not long in securing a good practice and a comfortable home in his new location. His skill as a surgeon, and his knowledge of medicine soon won for him a widespread reputation throughout the South, and owing to his own personal worth, he drew around him a confiding populace. The many wonderful cures which he effected brought him prominently before the public as a physician of exceptional merit, and even now his prescriptions are treasured by his patients. He was one of the original members of the medical board, and took part in its organization in July, 1888, and at the time of his death he was president of a medical society, a member of the board of health, surgeon in charge of the hospital, and socially belonged to the K. of P., the K. of H., the A. L. of H., and K. of St. J. and M. He combined rare intellectual worth and ability with innate goodness, warm geniality, sociability and true charity, and his death, which occurred on September 9, 1889, was lamented by all whom he had known, for they felt that they had lost a true friend and brother, and one whose place it would be hard to till. He was married in 1859 to Miss Fannie O'Bannon, and by her became the father of a son and daughter: David M. Jr., and Fannie H. The son was born in 1866, received his education in Shreveport, and in 1889 graduated from the medical department of the Tulare University of Louisiana, at Now Orleans. He is now practicing his profession in Shreveport, and gives every promise of rivaling his eminent father in the practice of the " healing art."

Hon. R.T. Cole is one of the prominent and successful handlers of real estate in the city of Shreveport, and is one of the best posted men in his line of business in Northern Louisiana, being familiar with nearly every foot of ground in Caddo and Bossier Parishes. He was born in Macon County, Ala., June 8, 1843, to Noah B. and Wealthy (Taylor) Cole, natives of Abbeville District, S. C., and Georgia, respectively. The father emigrated to Georgia when a young man, and after his marriage removed to Alabama, and in 1848 to Caddo Parish, La., where he died in 1852, his widow passing to her long home in 1875. To them a family of eight daughters and one son was born, the latter being the subject of this sketch and the youngest of the family. He was educated in the schools of Shreveport, but was brought up on his father's plantation, and being a Southern sympathizer, heart and soul, he, on April 28, 1861, enlisted with the Shreveport Rangers in the Third Louisiana Infantry, and was under the command of I. B. Gilmore until the surrender of Lee at, Appomattox Court House. He was twice slightly wounded, and at, the surrender of Vicksburg was captured, but a short time after was paroled. Ho returned home, resumed farming, and continued to follow that calling up to the present time, but since 1885 has been a resident of Shreveport.

He has always boon largely interested iu planting, and raises largo quantities of cotton, stock and grain. He has a fine list of properties, embracing both hill and cotton lands, cultivated and uncultivated, which ho sells at low figures, and on easy bonus. The city property he has for sale is a number of choice lots both in the center of the city and in the suburbs, and besides this he is the owner of 1,600 acres of land, a goodly portion of which is in pasture. He is a practical business man in every sense of the word, a shrewd calculator, possessed of untiring energy, and as he has been familiar with Shreveport since it was a village, ho has helped to make the town what it now is. Its history could not be written without him, and by leniency, fair dealing and strict integrity he has won many warm friends. Unerring in his estimate of land values, his judgment is sought and relied upon by capitalists who consider him one of the most cautious as well as enterprising and successful dealers in the business. He was appointed police juror of Caddo Parish by Gov. McEnery, and in April, 1S8S, he was elected on the Democrat ticket to the State Legislature and is now discharging his duties. He is president of the Interstate Building Association, is a director in the First National Bank, is interested in the Shreveport Fire Insurance Company, and the Opera House Company. He was a delegate to the State Democratic Convention to nominate Nichols for governor, and socially is a member of the A. P. & A. M., and the A. O. U. W. His marriage to Miss Virginia Noel, a native of Louisiana, took place in 1865, and has resulted in the birth of the following children: Pallie, Hettie, Rosa, R. T, Jr., Ferne, Wealthy and Noah B. living, and two children deceased,

George A. Colquitt, a prosperous farmer of Ward 7, Caddo Parish, La., was born in Oglethorpe County, Ga., in 1839, being the son of Joseph E. and Ava Ann (Lee) Colquitt, natives of Oglethorpe County, and born in 1806 and 1816, respectively. The father was a planter by occupation, and fought in one of the early Indian wars, and died in his native county in 1850. He was a cousin of Ex-Gov. Colquitt, of Georgia. The mother came with the subject of this sketch to Louisiana in 1860. The grandfather, Robert Colquitt, came originally from Scotland, being a native of " the land of thistles and oatmeal." The grandfather, William Lee, was born in Virginia, but at an early date settled in Oglethorpe County, where ho died. George Colquitt is the second in number of the three sons and three daughters born to his parents. He received a common-school education, and in 1858 was married to Miss Seloma E. McAllister. To this union were born seven children, of whom one son and two daughters are living. Being called upon to sustain the sad loss of his wife in 1873, Mr. Colquitt, in the following year, married Mrs. Edna Johnson (nee McCutchen).

The second wife died in the year 1882, and the subject of this sketch was once more married May 1, 1889, to Mrs. Sarah J. Gailick, daughter of William H. and Mary E. Lindsey, of Georgia. In 1847 Mr. Colquitt came to Caddo Parish, and has since continued to make this his home. His residence is nine miles from Shreveport, and his estate embraces about 500 acres of valuable land. He runs a flourishing gin and corn mill business, and is generally looked upon as a first-class business man. He has succeeded in all his undertakings, and it is due entirely to his own exertions. He served in the police jury at one time, and was justice of the peace for six years. He took part in the late war, belonging to Company A, Sixth Louisiana Cavalry, in Arkansas, and engaged in several skirmishes. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Church.

Dr. H. C. Coty, physician and surgeon, Shreveport, La, This young but very successful physician and surgeon owes his nativity to this parish, his birth occurring in Shreveport in July, 1859, and is the son of Thomas D. and Mary (McDonald) Coty, the father a native of the Old Dominion, and the mother of Louisiana. The parents came to Louisiana in 1859, settled in Shreveport, but later moved to De Soto Parish, where the father held a number of local offices. Later they returned to Shreveport, and are now residing on their plantation near that city. Their family consisted of four children: Mrs. George Dickson, Richard,

Thomas D., Jr., and our subject. Dr. H. C. Coty, the eldest, of this family, was reared at Shreveport and Mansfield, and educated at Keatchie, La. When seventeen years of age he went to Shreveport Charity Hospital, and studied medicine. In 1880 he graduated at the University of Louisville, medical department, and immediately began practicing at Shreveport, where he has since continued. He is vice-president of Shreveport Medical Society, and has served two terms as a member of the board of health; also served his second term as coroner and parish physician. Ho is a member of the Masonic fraternity and the A.O.U.W. The Doctor was married in 1880, to Miss Emma Worthy, a native of Clinton, La., and one child is the result of this union, Mabel. Mrs. Coty is a member of the Baptist Church. The Doctor is fast extending his reputation, and has a liberal share of public favor, the best proof of his skill and care.

Calvin S. Groom is next to the oldest citizen in Ward 3, Caddo Parish, La., and has long been a prominent merchant of this region, although his birth occurred in Greene County, N. C , June 11, 1825, his parents being Isaac and Olive (Godwin) Groom, also natives of that State. About 1826 they removed to Jackson, Tenn., and from there to Houston County, Tex., in 1839, thence to Caddo Parish, La., in 1844, making their home here until their respective deaths in 1876 and 1844, he being eighty-three and she fifty years of age. The father was a successful farmer, a member of the Baptist Church, and in politics was a Democrat. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, a son of Charles Groom, of North Carolinian. To his union nine children were born, of whom the subject of this sketch was the fourth, three now living, and after his wife's death he married Mrs. Elizabeth Robertson. Calvin S. Groom began to learn the printer's trade when a boy of ten years, in Jackson, Tenn., and followed this calling in Austin and Washington, Tex., continuing until 1852, during which time he worked on the Caddo Gazette and also on the first daily paper published at Shreveport. After giving up his trade he came to Mooringsport and opened a mercantile establishment and warehouse, which he has conducted with the best of success ever since. He has been in business in Caddo Parish longer than any other merchant now residing there, and served one term in the capacity of magistrate. In February, 1863, he joined an independent company, which afterward became attached to the Third Louisiana Cavalry, and was on active duty until April, 1864, when he was detailed as a ferryman at Mooringsport, serving in that capacity until the close of the war. On January 12, 1851, he was married to Miss Margaret Ann Mooring, a daughter of Timothy Mooring, one of the oldest settlers of the parish, who had come in 1837 from Henderson County, Tenn. Mrs. Croom was also born in that State, and by Mr. Croom has become the mother of six children: Mrs. Thomas Cooper, W. H. B. (in the mercantile business), Mrs. Eliza Hales (of Gilmer, Tex.), Calvin B. (of Lake Charles, La.), Mrs. E. R. Hales (of Gilmer, Tex.), and Mrs. Margaret I. Wood (of Queen City, Tex.). Mrs. Croom has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church from girlhood, and is a truly charitable and Christian lady. Mr. Croom is a Democrat, a thoroughgoing business man, full of enterprise and energy. He owns extensive tracts of land aggregating 2,500 acres, and has a large portion under cultivation.

William J. Crowder, planter and stock dealer, Shreveport, La. Among the enterprising and successful farmers and stock dealers of Caddo Parish, La., none are more progressive and thorough than the subject of this sketch. Mr. Crowder was born in Oglethorpe County, Ga., in 1834, and is a son of William B. and Elizabeth H. (Ogilvie) Crowder, the father a native of Virginia, born in 1803, and the mother born in South Carolina in 1810. The parents were married at Edgefield Court House, S. C, and later moved to Georgia, where the father died in 1853. He was a planter by occupation, and for many years was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

After his death, in 1855, the family moved to Caddo Parish, La., where the mother resides at the present time. She has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for many years. The paternal grandfather, George Crowder, was a native of Virginia, and at an early day removed to Georgia, where he received his final summons. He was of English parentage, and was a soldier in the Revolutionary War. The maternal grandfather, James Ogilvie, was born in South Carolina, and there his death occurred. He was of Scotch descent. William J. Crowder, the third of eleven children, was early trained to the arduous duties of the farm, and received a good academic education. He came with his mother to Caddo Parish, La., in 1855, and in 1861 joined the First Louisiana Battalion, Infantry (Dreux Battalion), serving twelve months in Virginia as lieutenant, and participating in many engagements from there to Pensacola. In May he resigned and was placed in the Twenty-seventh Louisiana Infantry, participating in the siege of Vicksburg, after which he was made first lieutenant in the Twenty-eighth Louisiana Infantry. After the fall of Vicksburg he was on picket duty in Louisiana until the close of the war. After this he was engaged in merchandising at Shreveport for a number of years, and since then has been engaged in farming and stock trading. He has a good plantation, and is prominently identified with the farming interests of the parish.

Hon. A. Currie, ex-mayor and insurance agent, Shreveport, La. It is an acknowledged fact that insurance is among the most important branches of business in any community. It gives security to commercial transactions, as well as a sense of protection to the householder. Without it the merchant might lay his head on his pillow at night with the haunting thought that ho may rise a beggar in the morning; with it he can slumber peacefully, knowing that should his property be swept away the insurance agent is ready to replace it. Holding a leading place as a representative of many leading foreign and American companies, is Mr. A. Currie, who has been engaged in this business for the last eighteen years. He is a native or the Emerald Isle, his birth having occurred in County Clare on March 4, 1843, and is a son of James and Mary (Griffin) Currie, both of whom died in Ireland. They were the parents of five sons, one of whom died in Ireland, the others coming to America. A. Currie was but five years of age when he crossed the ocean with two brothers, Michael and James. They sailed from Cork, lauding at Boston after an ocean voyage of several weeks. He located with his brothers in New York City, and remained in that State until sixteen years of age. In 1859 he came South and located at Shreveport, where he held the position of clerk in a mercantile house for a short time. After this he attended school, but his studies were interrupted by the breaking out of the war. He enlisted in Company A, First Louisiana Volunteers, and served until the surrender. He was twice captured, first at Arkansas Post, while serving on Col. Dunnington's staff, and was taken to Springfield, Ill.,where he was retained for three months. He was captured again near Borne, Ga., while on a scouting expedition under Provost-Marshal Gen. Hill, and was taken to Camp Morton at Indianapolis, Ind., where he was kept until Lee surrendered at Appomattox.

After his release from prison he remained at Vincennes, Ind., with a French mercantile firm, who were Southern sympathizers, a year, and then returned to Shreveport, where he entered the sheriff's office as deputy. Later he was elected constable, and served until the reconstruction, when he bought an interest in a mercantile business. In 1872 he engaged in the insurance business, and this he has followed ever since. He represents ten of the leading companies of the world, and is now doing a good business. Mr. Currie was elected mayor of Shreveport in 1878, and held this position continuously until March, 1890, when he resigned. He was married in 1870 to Miss Annie Fort Gregg, of Marshall, Tex., and they have two children: Andrew, Jr., and Mary B. Mr. Currie has stock in nearly all public enterprises in the city, is secretary, treasurer and director in Tucker's Paris Green Distributor Company, and prominent in all public enterprises. He secured the water and sewerage works, and the bridge roadway across Red River, for the city, and has been active in advancing its railroad connections. He has always been a prominent and conservative Democrat, and is a member of the Democratic State Central Committee.

W. L. Dickson, M. D., is one of the leading physicians of Caddo Parish, and is especially well known at Rush Point, and that vicinity. He is a prominent representative of one of the oldest families of Louisiana, his grandfather, Michael Dickson, having been born near Macon, Ga., but moved to East Feliciana Parish at a very early day, and in 1855 came to Bossier Parish. He had some money left him, and by using it judiciously, he became one of the wealthiest men in the State, owning 10,000 acres of some of the most valuable and fertile land in Louisiana, being also the owner of real estate in Arkansas. At his death in 1805 he was sixty-nine years of age. His wife, whose maiden name was Hannah Palmer, a native of South Carolina, was brought by her father, Adam D. Palmer, to Louisiana when a child, where she met and married Mr. Dickson. Her father was also very wealthy, and she and her husband were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Nine of the children born to them grew to maturity, and Michael A., the father of the subject of this sketch, who was the eldest, was educated in the Centenary College, of Jackson, La., graduating from the same. In 1862 he joined the Confederate army. He controlled and managed the property belonging to his father for some years prior to the latter's death, and continued' so to do until his father's death. He was married in 1853, to Miss Mattie Lipscomb, a daughter of William Lipscomb, of East Feliciana Parish, she being still alive, and a resident of Shreveport. Mr. Dickson was a Democrat, a Royal. Arch Mason, and his wife is an earnest member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. To them were born five children, four living: Dr. W. L., Michael A. (a planter of Lafayette County, Ark.), S. A. (a graduate in medicine of the University of Louisiana, at New Orleans, but gave up this calling to enter a drug store in Shreveport), and J. O. (who is a partner in the firm of Dickson & Dickson, at Rush Point). A daughter named Annie died when an infant. The father of these children passed from life in 1870, when just in the prime of life, being forty-one or forty-two years of age. Dr. W. L. Dickson attended Centenary College, of Jackson, La., until he was in his senior year, then left school to represent his mother in the settling up of his grandfather's estate. In 1877 he commenced the study of medicine under Dr. T. G. Ford, at Charity Hospital, Shreveport, La., and from 1879 until the spring of 1881 he attended Bellevue Hospital Medical College, of New York City, graduating from the same in the spring of the latter year, after which he located on Rush Point, his plantation and brothers' land amounting to 1,500 acres. His practice is large, and the success which has attended his efforts is fully deserved, for he is deeply enamored of his profession, and gives every case that comes under his care the utmost attention and study. He is a Democrat, his first presidential vote being cast for Hancock and English, and socially he is a member of the K. P., Dixie Lodge No. 32.

Jules Dreyfuss, a member of the mercantile firm of Henry Dreyfuss & Son, dealers in dry goods, clothing, carpets, etc., is only another of the many representative citizens of foreign birth in Caddo Parish, who have become prominent in their different callings. Mr. Dreyfuss was born in Prance in 1854, and is a son of Henry and Sarah (Aaron) Dreyfuss, natives also of that country. The father immigrated to the United States in 1855, located in Shreveport and embarked in mercantile pursuits, which he continued up to the time of his death in 1886. His wife and family crossed the ocean in 1859, and joined him in Shreveport. His family consisted of four children: Samuel, Bertha, Isaac and our subject, the latter being the eldest in order of birth. He came to this country with his mother, grew to manhood and received his education in Shreveport. He was in business with his father until the latter's death, since which time he has had the management of the business entirely. This large establishment is located at, the corner of Texas and Market Streets, occupying one of the most prominent corners iu the city. It is one of the oldest and best known houses in this section of the South, having been established by Henry Dreyfuss in 1866. Since the death of the latter (as mentioned above) his son, Jules Dreyfuss, has alone conducted this comprehensive industry, and such has been the enterprise and strong executive ability brought to bear on it, that the trade has materially increased in volume.

All the latest goods in the market are to be found in the large and varied stock, and a dressmaking establishment is run in connection with the store. Besides dry goods and notions, there is a department devoted to boots and shoos, and one to carpets and oil cloths. In addition to having a large local trade, the firm of Henry Dreyfuss & Son also do a large country business, and mail orders are promptly attended to. Mr. Dreyfuss is director in the Board of Trade, and the Dreyfuss family is largely interested in city property, in the building associations, fair grounds, opera house and other enterprises. Jules Dreyfuss was married in 1SS2 to Miss Bella Levi, of New Orleans, and the fruits of this union have been three children: Anetta, Henry and Albert.

Dr. J, C Egan, a prominent physician of Shreveport. and one of the oldest practitioners in Northern Louisiana, was originally from the Old Dominion, his birth occurring in Mecklenburg County, October 21, 1822, His parents: Dr. Bartholomew and Anna E. (Cormuck) Egan, were natives of the Emerald Isle, the father born in Killarneyand the mother in Dublin:. The maternal grandfather was a rebel of 1798, and was obliged to flee for his life. He exchanged clothes with his gardener, fled to France and thence to the United States, locating in Augusta, Ga., where he amassed an immense, fortune in the mercantile business. He and Joseph Cormack, Dr. McClellan (lather of Gen. McClellan) and Thomas Emmett (brother of Robert. Emmett), all came to the United States together. Grandfather Egan died in Killarney, Ireland, as did also his wife.

The parents of Dr. J. C. Egan were married in Ireland and sailed for America about 1817. locating in Amelia County, Va., near the residence of Gov. Giles. The father taught school in Amelia Academy, which was established by Gov. Giles, and was afterward an educator in the Virginia University. He studied medicine, and was a graduate of Richmond Medical College. In 1847 he came to Louisiana, located at Mt. Lebanon, Bienville Parish, and was of great assistance in building up the Mt. Lebanon University, chartered by the State. Here he practiced his profession for years, and was president of the University for a number of years. He was surgeon-general in the State forces under Gen. Moore, and was a State elector for Jefferson Davis on State confederacy. He was president of the North Louisiana Medical Association. After the death of his wife he came to Shreveport and died at the residence of Dr. J. C. Egan in about 1881, when in his eighty-fourth year. Ho was a very active man up to the time of his death. He was one of the organizers of the Louisiana State Convention, and was its first promoter. He was intimately and influential!)' identified with Northern Louisiana in a professional and social point of view, and gained a large and warm circle of friends. He was a member of the Baptist Church and a member of the Masonic fraternity. He was a particular friend of Thomas Jefferson, who, in speaking of his friend, said that he was one of the ripest scholars of his time. He had but two children who grew to maturity, and Dr. J. G. Egan is the only survivor. The latter was reared in Virginia and educated at Patrick Henry Academy, a celebrated school of its day. At the age of twelve years he began the study of medicine with his father, taking charge of the latter's patients in the infirmary, dressing their wounds. When eighteen years of age, or in 1840, he took his first course of lectures at Richmond University, and graduated in 1846 at New York City Medical College. He began practicing in Spotsylvania County, Va., and remained there until 1850, when he came to Louisiana, locating at Mt. Lebanon, Bienville Parish. There he resided until 1876, then moved to Shreveport, where he has since made his homo. He was elected State senator in 1808 without his permission, and was obliged to serve. He has been president of the State Medical Society, Shreveport Medical Society, and was on the board of supervisors of the State University. He is a member of the American Medical Society, and has been very active in all public enterprises. He was first lieutenant in Company C, Ninth Louisiana Regiment, which was organized by himself and Benjamin Pierce, and raised a North Louisiana regiment five times before getting into service. He was surgeon of the Ninth Louisiana Regiment, brigade surgeon of the First Brigade, and acted as division surgeon for Gen. Ewing during the Valley campaigns. He was transferred to the North Louisiana Department in February, 1863, and organized a hospital department of the district of West Louisiana as its chief. He was subsequently chief surgeon of the district of the West Louisiana Department, both hospital and field service. Dr. Egan was married in 1852 to Miss Susan E. Ardis, and the fruits of this union have been four living children: Mrs. Anna L. Calvert, Dr. W. L., Miss M. C. and Miss Lavina. Dr. and Mrs. Egan are worthy members of the Baptist Church, and are liberal supporters of all worthy enterprises. Socially the Doctor is a member of the Masonic fraternity and the A. L. of H . His brother, William B. G. Egan, was also a native of Virginia, born in 1824, and was a graduate of Emery & Henry College, near Abingdon, Va. After this he read law with Judge Norman Taliaferro, of Franklin County, Va., was admitted to the bar and practiced a few years in Spotsylvania County, Va. In 1848 he moved to Louisiana, located at Homer, and was elected district judge in 1854, remaining on the bench until the reconstruction. He was elected State senator in 1866 and served his term. He removed to Shreveport, La., and became a member of the law firm of Egan, Williamson & Wise, which had a large practice. He was a member of the supreme court, and while a member of the same he died in 1880, leaving no children. He was a Mason, and a member of the Episcopal Church.

J. J. Ellis, general merchant and jeweler of Caddo Parish, La., whose sketch now claims attention, is a gentleman of genial and courteous manners and deservedly popular throughout this community. He has achieved marked success in his chosen line of work, having endeavored at all times to practice strict justice in connection with his integrity of purpose. He was born in Crawford County, Ga., in 1830, being the son of John W. and Margaret (Sanders) Ellis, who were both born in North Carolina and married in that State. They moved to Georgia, and then to Alabama, where they died, and both were members of the Missionary Baptist Church. The father was a planter and a soldier in the Seminole War. Mr. Ellis spent the years intervening between infancy and manhood on a plantation, and at the age of twenty-one commenced a business career for himself, selecting agriculture as an occupation at that time. He was the fifth of the eight children born to his parents.

In 1854 Mr. Ellis married Miss Adeline Tucker, daughter of Charley and Louisa (Payne) Tucker, natives of Alabama. This union has been blessed with eight children, of whom two sons and two daughters are living at the present time. The subject of this sketch moved to Caddo Parish in 1859, at first giving his attention to agricultural pursuits, and starting his present business in 1880, In the following year he enlisted in the Confederate army, joining Company B, Twenty-eighth Louisiana Infantry, and figured in the battles fought in Arkansas and Louisiana. He was captured at Franklin, La., in 1864, and held as a prisoner for twenty-one days, being sick at the time. The company disbanded at Mansfield, and Mr. Ellis returned home to take charge of his private affairs. The State of Louisiana is growing rapidly in business resources, and is generally conceded to be a most pleasant place of residence. M. C. Elstner, United States district attorney and one of the most efficient government officials, is one of the most popular men within the limits of Caddo Parish, for he is recognized as a man of worth and substantial, progressive spirit. It can, with truth, be said that no more capable man for the filling of his present position could be found, and he has displayed far more than an average degree of ability and sagacity. He was born in Grant County. Ky., November 14. 1851, and is a son of W. H. and Anna S. (Carter) Elstner, who were born, reared and married in that State, and came to Louisiana in 1859, locating in Caddo Parish. After a residence of a few years here they removed to Arkansas, but became dissatisfied with their location at the end of about two years and, in 1863, returned to Louisiana. Upon the opening of the Rebellion he joined one of the first Arkansas regiments (the Third), and was with Ben McCullough and McIntosh when they were killed at the battle of Elk Horn, which was a tight between Sigel and Van Dom; he held the rant of major and quartermaster. At, the close of the war he opened a mercantile establishment in Shreveport, La. .which he conducted until his death, which occurred in 1877. His widow survives him, having borne five children, three now living: M. C . Joseph C. and Mrs. H. C. Rogers. The subject of this biography has spent the most of his life in the town of Shreveport, but received his collegiate education in Lexington, Ky., and in 17872 was graduated from the law department of the same institution. He was first admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of Kentucky, and that year was admitted to the same in Shreveport, La., and in 1874 entered upon his practice. During the administration of President Arthur he filled the position of United States Attorney, and in July, ls>-'. was appointed to the same office, and his duties have been performed in a manner highly flattering to himself ever since. He is an able lawyer, a convincing and eloquent speaker, and the reputation he has gained has been acquired largely through his own individual .efforts and at the expense of diligent study and practical experience. He was married in 1873 to Miss Julia Smoker, a native of Louisiana, and they are now the parents of tour children: Mania, Anna, Elvina and William H. Mr. Elstner is a Mason, a Bed Man and Elk, and has the honor of being great representative of Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas in the .Bed Men1 s order, and is ruler in the society of Elks. The excellent manner in which he has discharged his official duties is too well known to need any additional words of compliment, since it to say that, he has the confidence and esteem of all who know him, for his prominent characteristics are unquestioned integrity, singular fairness and liberality, a mind just and liberal, and of generous heart and character.

Dr. T. G. Ford, physician and surgeon, Shreveport, La. Dr. Ford is a man of decided intellectual ability, is ever ready to obey the call of all classes, and is, in truth, a physician of thorough learning and experience. He is a native of this parish, his birth occurring June 20, 1848, and is a son of Judge J. M. and Frances (Burt) Ford, natives of South Carolina. This family is of Huguenot origin, and the great-grandfather was born in France. The grandfather, John Ford, was a celebrated Methodist divine. He left Tennessee on account of hostile Indians, removed to Hinds County, Miss., and the first Methodist Conference was held at, his house. He died in Mississippi and left considerable wealth. Judge J. M. Ford was a very prominent lawyer j and was judge of Hinds County for many years. He moved to Caddo Parish, La., in 1845, and after practicing law for a short time moved to his plantation a short -distance in the country, and there his death occurred in 1876. He was the owner of three large plantations, was judge of Caddo Parish for some time, and was one of the leading spirits and a man of literary attainments. His doors were always open, and his home was a home for all. He was the father of nine children, only one besides Dr. Ford now living, Mrs. S. B. McCutcheon. Dr. T. G. Ford attained his growth in Caddo Parish, and received his education at, Gilman, Upshur County, Tex., under the auspices of Prof, Looney, where he graduated in 1866. He subsequently began the study of medicine with Dr. D. M. Clay, preceptor, and graduated at, Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York, in the session of 1869 and 1870.

He immediately began the practice of his profession at, Shreveport, and has resided here up to the present. He has built up an excellent, practice, and is said to excel in surgery, rating at the head of his profession. He is a member of the International medical congress in Washington, and is a member of the State Medical Society and Shreveport Medical Society, of which he is ex-president. He is also vice-president of the Caddo Parish Medical Society. Socially he is a member of the A.F. & A.M., the K. of P., I.0.0.F., A.0.U.W., K. of H, Elks, Seven Wise Men, and the Red Men, He was married in 1871, to Miss Alice B. McWilliams, and the result, of this union has been two children: Amelia Enid and John G. McWilliams.

W. P. Ford, cashier of Merchants & Farmers Bank and also clerk of the district court, was born in Madison County, Miss., on January 26, 1848, and is a son of Samuel and Cornelia V. (Nicholson) Ford, both natives of Mississippi, and Mrs. Ford the daughter of Judge Nicholson of Mississippi. Samuel Ford was a lawyer by profession. His death occurred in 1857. The mother is still living and the wife of Gen. Theodore G. Hunt, of Now Orleans. By the first marriage there were four children born, all now living: Virginia, Rosa and Samuel, and to the last union there was one child, Dr. Randell Hunt, of Shreveport. W. P. Ford, the eldest in order of birth of the first family, was reared in Shreveport, whither he had moved with his parents in 1853, and here he received a common-school education. At an early age, or in 1870, he engaged in the cotton business with Joseph Boisseau, with whom ho continued until 1877, when the firm was dissolved by mutual consent.

Mr. Ford subsequently engaged with E. & B. Jacobs, in one of the largest wholesale houses in the city, and continued with this until June, 1880, at which time he assumed the duties of district clerk, having been elected to that office the November previous. His personal popularity has been shown by his election to the same position three consecutive terms without opposition, and he still holds that office, the duties of which he is well qualified to discharge. He has given entire satisfaction to the public in general. On the organization of the Merchants & Farmers' Bank in September, 1889, he was elected its cashier, which position he now occupies. He is one of tho most capable, practical banking men in the South, and is thoroughly familiar with the people and their manners. He held the office of administrator of public accounts of the city of Shreveport in 1877, and filled that as he has all other positions, in a very satisfactory manner. He is now deputy clerk of the Supreme Court of Louisiana at Shreveport.

Mr. Ford was married in 1870 to Miss Clara B. Kline, daughter of J. J. Kline, of Shreveport, and the fruits of this union have been three children, two now living: Edwin G, and Charles B, Mr. and Mrs. Ford are members of the Episcopal Church. He is a Knight, Templar in the Masonic fraternity, is a member of the K. of P., K, of H,. L. of H, I.O.O.F., and the A O.U.W. He has represented his lodge in the Grand Lodge of the I.O.O.F. The Merchants & Farmers' Bank, of which Mr. Ford is the capable and experienced cashier, was organized iu September, 1889), and commenced business iu October of the same year with a paid-in capital of §200,000. The institution of this bank was the outgrowth of a demand for more capital to handle the rapidly increasing commercial interests of the city of Shreveport. The prime movers in this enterprise were Charles X. Fowler, of Now York, and Charles Benjamin Wilkinson, of Philadelphia, the latter of whom is vice president, of the bank. The local officers are men of enterprise and largo business experience and capacity, and enjoy the good-will and confidence of the entire community. Their frank and easy manner in dealing with the people has already drawn to them a large and influential patronage. The directory is composed of some of the most substantial and respected citizens of Shreveport. The names of the officers are: Thomas B. Chase, president; Charles Benjamin Wilkinson, vice-president; W. P. Ford, cashier, and Arthur J. Newman, assistant cashier. Mr. Chase is largely identified with the business interests of Shreveport, and Mr. Wilkinson is the well known Philadelphia capitalist. Mr. Ford is a fine financier in every sense of the word, and is a gentleman of ability and rare business judgment. Mr. Newman is an energetic, active and reliable officer,

Capt. C. J. Foster is a man whom nature seems to have especially designed to be a planter, for he has met with more than the average degree of success in pursuing that calling and owing to his desire to keep out of the beaten path and to its adoption, of new and improved methods, together with industry and good judgment, he is now the owner of 5,040 acres of fine land, besides good business property in Shreveport and one of the most magnificent homes in that city. He was born in Monroe County, Ala. in 1834 to Flavel and Mary Hollingsworth Foster, the former of whom was born in Virginia in 1801, but was reared in Kentucky. The mother's birth occurred in Alabama in 1802 and in this State they were married and resided until! 1SUS, when they came to Caddo Parish, and settled on an improved farm near Keatchie, where they spent the rest, of their days, dying in 1860 and 1864 respectively. The father was a leading and successful planter, and improved several farms before his death. He was an earnest member off the Methodist, Church and his wife was a Baptist. The paternal grandfather died in Kentucky when his son Flavel was a lad, and the latter was compelled to make his own way in the world. Jacob Hollingsworth the maternal grandfather, was one of the very early settlers of Caddo Parish, La., having moved here in 1839 or 1840, annul here spent the rest of his life. Capt. C. J. Foster was the fifth of eight children, and although much of hos life was devoted to farm life, he received a good education in the military school at Drennon Springs Ky. and after that institution was moved to Nashville, Tennessee, he attended it there and graduated.

He remained actively employed until 1862, when he enlisted in Company G, Twenty-seventh Louisiana Infantry as first lieutenant, and was afterward was made captain in which capacity he served with distinction until the close of the war. operating at Vicksburg until the fall of that place then in Southern Louisiana. After t h e war he again returned to the farm. Until 1882 he resided in the old  farm at and Keatchie then in Shreveport.  They belong to one of the most popular families in the parish, and are among its most extensive planters. The most of Mr. Foster's property has been acquired through his own efforts and his earnest and sincere endeavor to succeed in life is well worthy the imitation of the rising generation. In 1865 Miss Eunice E. Burruss became his wife, and to their union a family of four children was born, three sons now living. Mrs. Foster is a daughter of Rev. John C. and Emily Burruss, the former of whom was born in Virginia, and the latter in Boston, Mass. After residing in Alabama for some time they came to Caddo Parish, La.., about 1848, and here the father was called to his long home, in 1863, having been a planter, and a •minister of the Methodist Church throughout life. His widow survives him. Capt. Foster has served as police juror two terms, and in 1884 was elected to the Legislature and served with distinction on the committees on lands and levees, railroads, etc. He is a Democrat, in politics; in social life is kind, courteous and affable in his demeanor to all; is a man who attracts the regard of all who approach Mm, and is universally reverenced and esteemed by his fellow-citizens. He and his wife are prominent and worthy members of the Methodist Church.

J . S. Gamblin, a brief sketch of whose life now claims attention from the reader, is a prosperous planter and merchant in Ward 7, Caddo Parish, La., and has by means of his own natural ability and energy, won for himself success in the mercantile world. More and more, as the country grows older, it is proven that what is commonly called self-made men are in the long run, those who receive the largest portion of the goods the gods provide. Mr. Gamblin made, his first appearance in this world in the year 1839, his birth occurring in Harrison County, Tex. His parents, Thomas and Martha A. (Scogin) Gamblin, were born in North Carolina about 1809, and 1815 South Carolina respectively. They were married in the State of Alabama, moving from there to Mississippi, from there to Arkansas, and thence to Texas, and finally returning to Louisiana, settled in Caddo Pariah. During the gold excitement in California the father went out to that section of the country, where he remained two years. He died in 1850, and his widow passed to her final resting place in December of 1887, at the home of her son, John.

The father was engaged in agricultural pursuits and was of English descent, being the son of John Gamblin, who came from England to Alabama. The mother's family was also English, her father coining from that country and settling in North Carolina, and afterward in Caddo Parish, where he died in 1841. John Gamblin is the youngest of the three sons and two daughters born to his parents, and was reared from infancy on the plantation in Caddo, receiving a good education at this place and at Marshall, Tex. In 1862 he served a short while in the Louisiana Infantry, and in the same year was married to Miss Elizabeth Sophia, daughter of Josiah and Mary C. Guill, natives of Virginia and Tennessee, respectively. They were married in Wilson County, Tenn., going from there to Sumter County, Ala., and, in the year 1848, came to Caddo Parish, where Mr. Guill died in 1875. Mrs. Guill is still living. Both of them belonged to the Methodist Church, and Mr. Guill served in the Indian War. His father, Josiah Guill, was a native of Virginia, served in the War of 1812, and died in Wilson County, Tenn. His grandfather, John Guill, was a native of England, leaving that country at the age of fourteen, and upon reaching the United States was bound out to the highest bidder, serving until he reached his majority for a saddle, bridle and $100. He died in Virginia. Mrs. Gamblin, wife of John Gamblin, was born in Sumter, Ala., in 1845. To their union were born four sons and six daughters, all of whom are now living at home. Mr. Gamblin lived two years in Upshur County, Tex., and since has made his home in Caddo Parish, living since 1873 on his' present plantation, which is situated about seven miles west of Shreveport, and comprises about 189 acres of valuable land.

For several years he was postmaster of the post office at Rose Hill. He is a member of the A.F. & A.M., Land Mark Lodge, No. 214, and was for a time junior warden of his lodge. Mr. Gamblin's grandfather, John Seogin, fought for the freedom of the American colonies, and his own brother fought on the opposite side. Mr. Gamblin's grandmother, Mary Seogin {nee Lang), was born in England, but came with her parents and brothers and sisters to the United States many years ago. She was married in South Carolina on January 31, 1808, and died in Caddo Parish in 1839, at the age of fifty-four. Mrs. Gamblin's maternal grandmother, Charity (Oxford) Ligon, was born in North Carolina and died in Wilson County, Tenn., about 1833. She was of Scotch-Irish descent. Mrs. Gamblin's paternal grandmother, Margaret (Hughes) Guill, spent all her life in Virginia. Thus it is seen that this family is connected on both sides with the oldest and most cultured families in the South, and they are worthy representatives of their talented ancestors. V. Grosjean, proprietor of The Caucassian, Shreveport, was born in New Orleans, La., on April 27, 1844, and educated in the public schools of that city. On April 11, 1861, he enlisted in the Louisiana Guards, the second company that loft the State, and was connected with the famous Charley Dreux's battalion in Virginia.

The company's term of enlistment expired after the retreat from Yorktown to Richmond and was disbanded, after which the members joined other companies. Mr. Grosjean, under special duty, ran the blockade, entering New Orleans twice when it was in command of Gen. Butler. His mission was successful, but he had many narrow escapes, especially the last time, when he was captured by Federal pickets, from whom he made his escape however. After leaving New Orleans he reported for duty at Vicksburg, where he joined the Fourth Louisiana Regiment, commanded by Col. H. W. Allen, who was afterward governor of the State. He served with his company and regiment in every engagement during the campaign in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama. He was a private during service, and declined promotion on several occasions. He was captured on the retreat from Nashville and sent to Camp Chase, but was exchanged on March 1, 1865. He then joined his command at Mobile, which surrendered at Citronelle, Ala., to troops under Gen. E. R. S. Cauby, May 4, 1805.

There were then thirty-three members in the regiment, including musicians, cooks and convalescents returned from the hospital. After the war Mr. Grosjean engaged in commercial pursuits in New Orleans and also edited and managed the Heptasoph, a newspaper devoted to the interests of a benevolent association, which had a strong membership in several States both North and South, He held the highest position of honor in the gift of their order in the State. Mr. Grosjean was married, in Davenport, Iowa, on March 7, 1872, to Miss Alice Fory, of Allen's Grove, Iowa, and by whom he has six children: Alice, Agnes, George, Frank, Laurens and Mattie Grace. Mr. Grosjean moved to Shreveport, La., in the fall of 1872 and engaged successfully in agricultural pursuits. Ho was connected on the editorial staff and had the management of the Shreveport Standard, also the evening Democrat, and was employed on the Shreveport Times in 1884. He became part owner and editor of that paper during the heated campaign of 1887, but, sold his interest in it in September, 1889. After this he purchased the Caucassian, which has been under his management ever since, and it may be said that there is not a better sheet published in the South. He is president of the Benevolent Association of Confederate Veterans, of which he was one of the organizers, and has taken a great pride in it. He is an active member and worker in the order of K. of H. and A. L. of H. and other organizations, and a more public-spirited citizen than Mr. Grosjean can not be found in Shreveport. He is a thorough newspaper man of literary attainments and ability.

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