Minutes of the thirtieth annual meeting and reunion of the United Confederate Veterans
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MINUTES OF THE Thirty-first Annual Meeting and Reunion OF THE UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS Held at Houston, Texas ON Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, October 6, 7 and 8 f 1920 K. M. VAN ZANDT, General Commanding ANDREW B. BOOTH, Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff
Rogers Printing Company, New Orleans, Louisiana  [Webmaster's note: Thirty-first was over struck with the word 30th.]

MINUTES OF THE Thirty-first Annual Meeting and Reunion OF THE UNITED CONFEDERATE VETERANS Held at Houston, Texas ON Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, October 6, 7 and 8, 1920. [Webmaster's note: Thirty-first was over struck with the word 30th.]

K. M. VAN ZANDT, General Commanding
ANDREW B. BOOTH, Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff
Rogers Printing Co., 610 Bienville St. New Orleans. La.

The 31st Annual Convention and Reunion of the United Confederate Veterans was held at Houston, Texas, October 6th, 7th and 8th, 1920., At 10 o'clock A. M. Wednesday, Oct. 6th, Bugle Call was sounded by Comrade E. E. Smith, of Sterling, Price Camp No. 31, Dallas, Texas; the band played Dixie and the convention was called to order by General E. W. Kirkpatrick Commander Texas Division, U. C. V., McKinney, Texas. A short address and invocation by Rev. J. W. Bachman, D. D. Chaplain General, U. C. V. Addresses of welcome by Hon. A. E. Amerman, Mayor of Houston; by Governor W. P, Hobby, Governor of the State of Texas. The Confederate Choir rendered Confederate airs, loudly cheered by the assembly. Address of welcome on behalf of Texas Veterans by Judge Norman G. Kittrell, and a greeting to the Official Ladies of the U. C. V. by Miss Katie Duffan, Past Sponsor for the South, and the gavel and convention was turned over to General K. M. Van Zandt, Commander-in-Chief.

The band rendered "Dixie" which was enthusiastically cheered.
Response to the addresses of welcome was made by Comrade Captain James Dinkins, of Camp No. 9, New Orleans, La.
A poem, "San Jacinto/' by Miss Virginia Fraser Boyle, of Memphis, Tenn., was read, and received with cheers.
Admiral O. A. Wright, of the Confederate States Navy, spoke briefly of plans to build a Home for veterans of the Confederate Navy, and was enthusiastically cheered.

The following Committee on Credentials was appointed, namely: Alabama, Col. G. H. Craig, Selma; Arkansas, Maj. A. Neelly, Searcy; Florida, Maj. W. H. Ballard, Tampa; Georgia, Gen, D. B. Morgan, Savannah; Kentucky, Col. John E. Abrahams, Louisville; Louisiana, Maj. C. P. Richard, Opelousas; Mississippi, Maj. J, W. Langley, Jackson; Missouri, Gen. G. W. Lang-ford, Marshall; North Carolina, Lieut.-Col. H. D. Duckworth; South Carolina, Gen. W. A. Clark, Columbia; Tennessee, F. M. McRee, Columbia; Texas, Maj. J. M. Cochran; Virginia, C. C. Graham, Washington, D. C.

The following Committee on Resolutions was appointed, namely: Arkansas, Gen. J. T. Garretson, Birmingham; Arkansas, Maj. B. B. Chism, Paris; Florida, Col. Frank Harris, Ocala; Georgia, Gen. George Hillyer, Atlanta; Kentucky, Gen. N. B. Deathridge, Richmond; Louisiana, J. S, Millikin, Millikin P. O.; Mississippi, Maj. Clay Sharkey, Jackson; Missouri, Col. A. A r Pearson, Kansas City; North Carolina, Lieut. Col. J. J. Laughinghouse; South Carolina, Col. J. Otey Reed, St. George; Tennessee, Dr. D. J. Roberts, Nashville; Texas, Col. S. H. Blair, Dallas; Virginia, Col. W. M. Mullan, Petersburg; West Virginia, Col. T. Z. McChesney, Charleston.

The convention then took recess until 3 o'clock P. M.
Afternoon, Wednesday, Oct. 6th, 3. P. M. Session. Invocation by Rev. Dr. Buffington. Music by band, and song by Confederate Choir.
The annual address was delivered by Hon. Fritz G. Lanham, of Fort Worth, Texas.

Telegram of greetings from Corpus Christi Chapter, United Daughters of Confederacy, was received from Mrs. Walter L. Barnum, Secretary, was read and received with cheers.

The following telegram was read and received from the Governor of the State of Oklahoma: Oklahoma City, Okla., Oct. 5th, 1920. To the Commander-in-Chief United Confederate Veterans, Houston, Texas:

Public and official duties prevent me from attending your present Reunion, but I cannot neglect the opportunity to send greetings and best wishes to you and all the old heroes who wore the Gray. May this Reunion be the source of great joy and happiness to you all, and may you be spared for many years of usefulness. Oklahoma is justly proud of her Confederate soldiers and is trying to care for them and honor them as they deserve to be cared for and honored.

They are a great asset to our State and nation, because they are all good citizens, loyal, patriotic, and true in their devotion to duty, and high ideals in government. They serve as an inspiration to us of the younger generation, and enable us to do better service to ourselves, our State, our nation, and to humanity. The sacrifices made by the men and women of the Confederacy are becoming better known, and more appreciated every day, God bless you, and each and every one of you. J. B. A. ROBERTSON, Governor.

Upon motion, duly seconded and carried, a vote of appreciation and thanks was extended to Governor Robertson of Oklahoma for his timely and thoughtful words of greeting to our convention. The Confederate Choir rendered a song, which was greeted with applause.

A splendid address was eloquently delivered by young Terrell Sledger, of Driftwood, Texas; and he was cheered to the echo in appreciation by the Veterans. Both his grandfathers were in the Confederate service.

The Committee on Credentials submitted the following report; Divisions: South Carolina, 67 votes; North Carolina, 78 votes; Virginia, 105 votes; West Virginia, 16 votes; Maryland, 9 votes; Louisiana, 64 votes; Tennessee, 72 votes; Florida, 46 votes; Alabama, 110 votes; Mississippi, 104 votes; Georgia, 162 votes; Kentucky, 42 votes; Texas, 263 votes; Oklahoma, 67 votes; Missouri, 23 votes; Arkansas, 84 votes; Pacific, 4 votes, which report was adopted unanimously.

A resolution was unanimously adopted requiring all resolutions to be submitted to Committee on Resolutions without reading.
And it was announced a meeting of that committee would be held at 8 O'clock P. M. in Room 719, Rice Hotel.

The Confederate Choir rendered a song, "Tenting Tonight"; Assistant Chaplain General W. W. Graham, of Clarksville, Texas, pronounced the benediction, and the Convention adjourned to 9:30 A. M. Thursday, Oct. 7, Thursday, Oct. 7, 1920, 9:30 A. M.

Music was rendered by the band. Called to order by General K. M. Van Zandt. Invocation by Assistant Chaplain General Giles B. Cooke, of Portsmouth, Va., Chaplain-in-Chief Sons of Confederate Veterans.

General George Hillyer, of Atlanta, Ga. 3 addressed the Convention in favor of government pensions for Confederate veterans. Telegrams of greetings were read from General George H. Tichenor, New Orleans, La.; Mrs. Cornelia Branch Stone, Roanoke, Va.; General C. Irvine Walker* Mount Pleasant, South Carolina; Mrs. Eliza Harrison, Washington, D. C, and the following loyal telegram greeting was read and received with great applause:

San Antonio, Texas. General K. M. Van Zandt, Commanding United Confederate Veterans' Encampment, Houston, Texas.
"The Department of Texas American Legion, on behalf of 180,000 Texas service men of the World War, extends Heartiest greetings to the veterans of '61 and '65, Your example to us by your service in the war between the States was our incentive to conduct our actions honorably and well in the World Conflict just ended. Your sons and grandsons desire for you to know that your precepts and your example has been our guiding star for half a century and their luster can never dim. In foreign lands we fought side by side with the sons of your former and honored opponents and came to know that there is no longer a North and no longer a .South, but one America, of which you form so noble a part. The Stars and Bars now mingle with the Stars and Stripes and, combined for the eternal good of all mankind, wave triumphant over a united and grand America, for which you shed your blood and for which we offered ours. "The American Legion feels that it has a noble work to perform in following in the footsteps of our two veteran organizations, and it will endeavor to prove worthy of the trust. The Department of Texas is honored by your meeting within our borders and we wish that every success may crown your future years.

CHARLES W. SCRUGGS, Department Adjutant American Legion.

Mrs. C. B. Stone of the S. C. M. Association addressed the Convention briefly.

Hon. Henry Louis Smith, President of R. E. Lee School of Engineering, Lexington, Va., addressed the Convention in behalf of that institution.

The report of the Rutherford Committee, General C. Irvine Walker, Chairman, was endorsed and adopted.

The movement to place a $120,000 monument in the public park at Houston, Texas, was endorsed.

Upon motion, duly adopted, Miss Katie Daffan was thanked for the poem printed in the general program.

The hour of 12 o'clock noon having arrived, the Joint Memorial Service with the C. S. M. A. was announced, and the solemn ceremonies begun by the singing of the hymn, "How Firm a Foundation," by the vested choirs from the Cathedral Invocation by Rev. Randolph Clark, Stephenville, Texas. Reading of honor roll of Confederate Veterans; reading of honor roll of Confederated Southern Memorial Association. Hymn, "Lead, Kindly Light," by the vested choirs. Address, "The Immortals," Rev. J. W. Bachman, Chaplain General U. C. V. Address, "The Women of the C. S. M. A.," Miss Kate Daffan. Address, "Our Glorious Inheritance," Rev. B. A. Owen, Assistant Chaplain General S. C. V., Freeport, Texas. Address, Mrs. J. Enders Robinson, Richmond, Va., Corresponding Secretary C. S. M. A. Hymn, "God Be With You Till We Meet Again." Benediction, Rev. Peter Gray Sears, Chaplain Albert Sidney Johnston Camp, S. C. V. Taps were then sounded and the joint meeting adjourned, the Convention to meet again at 2 o'clock P. M. 2 O'clock P. M., Thursday, Oct 7, 1920.

Convention met. Music by the band. Invocation by Rev. Randolph Clark, Stephenville, Texas. Address by Edgar Scurry, Wichita Falls, Texas, Sons of Veterans. Address by Judge Charles B. Howry, of Washington, D. C. f greetings from S. C. V. General J. S, Carr made a report on Battle Abbey, which was received and endorsed. Upon report of the Committee on Resolutions and Discussion* the following resolutions were adopted;

Resolution No. 1, Whereas, the records of the enlistment and services of the Confederate soldiers were removed from Richmond to the War Department of the United States Government at Washington, and are now under control and in the custody of the Adjutant General; and

Whereas, these records are liable to be obliterated and lost by the lapse of time; and Whereas, those records constitute a valuable and important part of the historical material of this country and are particularly valuable for the families, friends and descendants of these soldiers.

Now therefore resolved, first That it is very important that said records be carefully preserved, and to this end we respectfully request that they be printed by the government whilst they are still legible and bound in permanent form for preservation and for such distribution as may be deemed proper, and that if funds for that purpose are not now available that an appropriation be made therefor by the Congress of the United States, Resolved, second, That the members and friends of this organization bring this to the attention of the United States Senators and Representatives of their several States and Districts.

Resolution No 2:
1. The United Confederate Veterans, in Convention at Houston, Texas, reaffirms the statement of last year's Convention at Atlanta, that General Lee's University at Lexington is not only his imperishable monument, but his living representative, engaged in the great task of propagating his influence and ideals among successive generations of future leaders. It, therefore, commends it to the sympathy and support of all who honor his memory and wish to perpetuate his influence.

2. It hereby reappoints its former Committee on the Robert K Lee Memorial School of Engineering, approves the plan of procedure adopted and authorizes its chairman to fill any vacancies occurring in the committee, form auxiliary committees and adopt whatever methods the committee approves to push the work to completion. It urges all Veterans and allied organizations, and all who may be called by the committee for active service, to lend their zealous and liberal aid.
3. Recognizing the thinning numbers and increasing infirmities of its own membership, it confidently calls upon the Sons of Confederate Veterans for that sympathy and assistance which shall carry our great enterprise to a speedy and successful conclusion and congratulates those State Divisions of the Daughters which have undertaken the custodianship and enlargement of the Lee Chapel and Mausoleum.

It would remind the widows, sons and other relatives and friends of deceased Confederates of this opportunity to link forever the names of such Veterans with the name and memory of their immortal commander in a great permanent memorial, which, in sight of his sacred tomb, shall carry on his life-work through all succeeding generations.

Resolution No. 3.
 Resolved, That we, the United. Con fed crate Veterans of the South, in Convention assembled and having faith in the fairness of the United States Congress, do hereby memorialize and petition said Congress as follows: Whereas, we fought for the cause we thought was right, offering our service and our lives upon the blood-stained battle fields of the South, defending her flag; and Whereas, when the conflict was over and we, the sons of the South, joined hands with the sons of the North, to lay down arms and be brothers and countrymen, following the flag of the Stars and Stripes; and Whereas, at the close of that great conflict there was a tax levied for a period of two years upon the Southland, and winch tax amounted to from five to six dollars per bale upon all cotton raised in the South, malting a grand total of some sixty-five million dollars, and of this amount the State of Texas did contribute perhaps the amount of three million dollars to such tax,

Be it, therefore, resolved, That a committee be appointed by the United Confederate Veterans, assembled at Houston, Texas is such committee to be composed of three members therefrom, and that such committee be instructed to implore and petition the Legislature of the State of Texas to memorialize and request the Congress of the United States for our right to demand our pro rata part of the tax so levied, and to receive our portion thereof.

Resolution No. 4.
Be it resolved by the United Confederate Veterans, in Convention assembled at Houston, Texas, Oct 7, 1920, That a committee be appointed by our Commander-in-Chief, clothed with authority to do all and every thing in their judgment necessary to the accomplishment in all of its details of a trust, as follows: To remove the remains of Mrs. Sarah Knox Taylor Davis, the first wife of President Jefferson Davis, from the private grave yard in Bayou Sara, where they now rest, to Holly Wood Cemetery at Richmond, Va., and to re-inter the same there in some appropriate plot of ground and as near as possible to the grave of her husband.

Said committee is further authorized, at their option, to appoint sub-committees to assist in the work, including the raising of a sum of money to defray the necessary expenses of the undertaking. The committee is further authorized to procure and place in position such monument or markers as in their judgment shall be appropriate and expressive of the admiration of the nation for Mrs. Davis' illustrious father, President Zachary Taylor, and of the love of the South for the memory of her husband, President Jefferson Davis.

Said committee shall be composed of three or more Confederate Veterans, and the sub-committee, if any, shall be composed of Daughters of the Confederacy, Daughters of the American. Revolution or Sons of Confederate Veterans, or of all three organizations, at the option of the committee.

Resolution No. 5.
Whereas, it is the wish of all true Americans that every vestige of sectionalism be obliterated; and Whereas, no part of our reunited country is more devoted to the Union than the South; Therefore be it resolved by the United Confederate Veterans, in Reunion at Houston, Texas, Oct. 7, 1920:
1. We insist that children should be taught that the glorious history of our country is the heritage of every section in common.
2. We urge upon all school authorities North and South to exercise every care to have used in their schools only histories that do justice to all sections. 3. We unhesitatingly condemn Beard & Bagley's His- tory of the American People because it is grossly unfair to the Southern people of the past and the Southern people of today.

We further condemn Beard & Bagley's History of the American People because, on account of Its Socialistic tendency and its pro-German treatment of the World War it is a dangerous text to place in the hands of young children North or South. We earnestly request, in the name of Americanism in the name of democracy and in the name of justice and truth, that all school authorities exclude Beard & Bagley's History of the American People from use in their schools.

Resolution No. 6.
Whereas, the practice of appointing a number of ladies to represent the various Departments, Divisions, Brigades and Camps of the United Confederate Veterans has in many cases been abused, Therefore be it resolved by the United Confederate Veterans in Convention assembled at Houston. Texas, Oct. 7, 1920, That the following: appointments, at any general Reunion of all the Departments, Divisions, Brigades and Camp officers, shall be limited strictly to the following official ladies: One Sponsor. Three Maids of Honor. One Chaperone, One Matron of Honor. Note: Official ladies for Camps are appointed for State, District and local Reunions, and are not furnished badges by committee at General Reunions.

Before the adoption of Resolution No. 4 the following tribute was read and adopted by a rising vote:
An Old Mirror and a Suggestion.
By Hampden Osborne, Adjutant General, Army of Tennessee Department.) During a recent visit at the home of my kinsman, Mr. James Oliver Banks, in Alabama, I noticed in the hall near my room a strange mirror. The glass was of goodly dimensions and enclosed in a quaint old frame of gilded wood. The frame bore marks of age and of several buildings, and the proportions of both frame and glass reminded one of pictures of the furnishings of a Virginia lady's boudoir a hundred years ago. One may safely estimate the age of the mirror as more than a hundred years.

A condensed history of the old relic, as given me by my hostess, Mrs. Banks, is about as follows: "I call it my Davis mirror. It was part of the furnishings of the bed chamber of President Davis and his wife in the home of his sister, Mrs. Smith, in Bayou Sara, La. It was there, you remember, that Lieutenant Jefferson Davis took his bride, who was Sarah Knox Taylor, soon after their marriage in Kentucky in the summer of 1835. My aunt, who was Susan Madison Buck, of Fredericksburg, Va., married Mr. Jed Smith, a nephew of President Davis, and at his (Mr. Smith's) death, the plantation and its appurtenances passed in the possession of his widow. The supposition is that the mirror first belonged to President Davis' mother and came from Kentucky. At any rate, he gave it to his sister and she gave it to her daughter-in-law, my aunt. A short time before my aunt's death she gave it to me. You may know that I value it highly."

As I stood before the mirror, gazing- into its depths, I thought of the many times it had reflected the images of Sarah Taylor Davis and Jefferson Davis. A thought also came of the claim by some scientists that such is the subtle power of light that the pictures of that historic couple are fastened in that silver backing, and that some day chemists will find a process for developing those now invisible impressions, so the longer I gazed, the greater in fancy grew the value of that old relic.

The story of the honeymoon of Mr. Davis and his bride on the Bayou Sara plantation, and its pathetic ending, was not new to me. I had heard it all from the lips of Mrs. Susan Buck Smith years ago, but the mirror brought it all back to me, and other and subsequent facts brought the suggestion to mind which I will give my readers later on.

Again, in fancy, I journeyed with Mrs. Smith to the place, and as we walked through the halls, the gardens and the grove, listening intently to a description of incidents in the home life of the young couple, she always referring to Mr. Davis as "Uncle Jeff," and soon we found ourselves in the little graveyard some two hundred yards from the manor house, and then came the story of the pathetic ending of those happy months.

Death smote both of those young lovers with its wing, both were ill with typhoid fever in adjoining rooms. On the day of the crisis Mr. Davis, hearing an unusual sound from his wife's room, went promptly to her. He found, in her semi-delirium, she was singing; singing to him an old love song he dearly liked. He took the dying girl in his arms and held her there, she still singing until her sweet spirit took its flight.

The double shock to Mr. Davis from the death of his girl-wife and the severity of the fever so prostrated him that he was a physical wreck for more than a year, However, as soon as he was strong enough for his duties, he returned to Mississippi.

They buried "Sarah Knox" in the little family graveyard, A brick wall some two feet high was built around the grave, and on that was placed a plain white marble, slab with the name and dates. Mrs. Smith further told me the deep affection in which Mr. Davis ever held this spot, and how, very soon after he was liberated on bond from his prison cell at Fort Monroe, he journeyed to the place. There he found that vandals in the garb of Federal soldiers had torn away the slab and the wall and dug great holes in the grave in search of supposed hidden treasure. He soon brought brick masons with material, who restored the wall and replaced the slab, obliterating all marks of the base desecration.  Through the remaining years of his life Mr. Davis would, at regular intervals, make pilgrimages to the grave.

During the eighty-five years since Sarah Taylor Davis was buried, the estate has been continuously in the possession of some member of the Davis family, first, Mrs. Smith, his sister; next his nephew, Mr. Jed Smith, and then it descended to the latter's widow, who owned it for a long period of years. Mrs. Susan Buck Smith died recently, the plantation has been sold to strangers, and the grave of Mrs. Davis is now in the care of no one. And now comes the thought, over and over: That girl was the daughter of Zachary Taylor and the wife of Jefferson Davis. Should such illustrious dust be thus forsaken? Should we not make her grave with the great of the earth.

On my last visit to the Davis Square, in Hollywood Cemetery, I noted carefully the unoccupied spaces there and saw there was ample room for the remains of Sarah Taylor Davis. Should they not rest near those of the husband who in life adored her? If laid there, we all know they will receive protection and tender care for all time. Yes, the care of the whole South, and more especially of the Daughters of the Confederacy of the City of Richmond, and, we may safely add, of their daughters and granddaughters through countless generations to come.

The question now comes, to whom should go the honor and the responsibility of carrying out this suggested re-sepulture? It interests all those who would honor the family of Zachary Taylor as well as those who would attest love for Jefferson Davis or honor for his memory. It especially interests all the Confederate organizations of the City of Richmond. I would, therefore, suggest that the United Confederate Veterans Association, at its great Reunion to be held in Houston, Texas, next October, appoint a committee charged with the duty and clothed with the authority to do whatever is necessary to achieve the desired results. And, further, that said committee be authorized and re- quested to call to their aid representatives of the D. A. R, and U. D. C. organizations in the City of Richmond.

Conception of laudable schemes should be quickly followed by execution. To provide the necessary funds, not a great sum for the work, you, the people of the South, will be appealed to, not by the writer of this article, not even by the united voice of the thousands of Confederate Veterans who will assemble in Houston Oct. 6 for their great Reunion, but by the facts and by your own hearts.

Everything must have a beginning, and to start the required fund the writer has sent a small sum of money to the Confederate Veterans, with the request that its manager, Miss Edith D. Rope, receive the same as Treasurer of the Sarah Taylor Davis Fund.

What Mrs. Susan Buck Smith told of President Davis' abiding loyalty to the dust of his girl-wife, of his delicate reserve in the steadfast performance of what he regarded a sacred duty, and of the deep sentiment in his nature which manifestly prompted it all, is, until now, an unwritten chapter in the life of this great man,

A mandate will sure issue from the great Convention of United Confederate Veterans at Houston. Texas, in October next, and, at some not distant day, a little group of good men and good women, assembled in Hollywood Cemetery, will, with simple solemnity, accord long-deferred honor to the dust of the high-minded daughter of President Zachary Taylor, who married the rising young army officer who is now known to the world as President Jefferson Davis.

Resolution No. 7.
Having heard with unfeigned interest the masterly and soul-stirring address of the Hon, Fritz Lanham, the son of a noble Confederate soldier and statesman, the late Governor Lanham, of Texas, and it was so fraught with the true spirit of real Americanism and breathing so much of peace and fraternalism that we deem it of great value and interest to those who will follow after us that we request Comrade Lanham to furnish our Adjutant General with a copy of said address and that the Adjutant be instructed to have it printed in pamphlet form and a copy sent to every Camp in the domain of United Confederate Veterans, with the request that it be given publicity in the Camp, and In order to carry out this resolution, suggest that a committee of three (3) be appointed to secure funds for the publication of this address. JAMES D. OSBORN, M.D. Assistant Surgeon General U. C. V.

Note: No copy of the address was ever furnished for publication.
Resolution No, 8.
 Whereas, in all the history of the world there is not a more inspiring record of heroism and patriotic devotion to a high principle; no nobler example of sacrifice of blood and treasure for home and fireside; no greater loyalty to the leadership of heroic officers than that presented in the Confederacy; and Whereas, those deeds of high heroism will forever remain an inspiration to the sons and daughters of those who gave their lives and fortunes for the Lost Cause, we feel that it is but right and proper that a fitting memorial to those who made possible this rich heritage be erected and forever dedicated to their memory. Every true son and daughter of the South would count it a high privilege to aid in the erection of a memorial which would stand for generations as the symbol of the heroic deeds of their progenitors. Therefore be it resolved, That we, the Veterans of the Confederacy, and the sons and daughters of those who gave their lives and their fortunes for the perpetuation of our ideals and the preservation of our honor, endorse a movement to erect a monument in the City of Houston, such monument to be fashioned after the design created by Enrico Cerracchio and published on the cover page of the Reunion edition of the Confederate Veteran, the original of such design being now on exhibition in the display window of W. C. Munn Company in this city.

Be it further resolved, That we dedicate ourselves to the work of securing the erection of this monument, which shall be the property of all the Southland, the common heritage of all who love the Cause of the Confederacy and revere the memory of those who, in behalf of this Cause, joined the bivouac of the dead. Let this monument stand through the centuries as a tribute to the heroism of those whom power could not corrupt, whom death could not terrify and whom defeat could not dishonor.

Be it further resolved, That a copy of this resolution be spread upon the minutes of this Reunion and supplied to all State organizations and to the newspapers.
Session 2 P. M., Thursday, Oct. 7, 1921. Music by the band. Invocation by Rev. Randolph Clark.
Section 2, Article VII of the Constitution, under heading, "General Headquarters," was, by unanimous vote, changed to read as follows:
Section 2. The Battle Abbey of the Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans, La., shall be the depository of all records, papers and relics of this Federation.

A report of the Confederate Memorial Association, the second annual report, showing the progress made in the completion of the Confederate Memorial Institute, known as the Battle Abbey, with tabulated financial statement (but without signature), was read to the Convention.

A poem styled "San Jacinto," by Mrs. Virginia Fraser Boyle, was also read.

One minute of standing in silence was devoted to the prayerful memory of Sam Davis, of Tennessee, and David Dodd, of Arkansas, the two Confederate soldier-patriots who gave their lives rather than forget their word of honor.

General W. J. Stone, of Kentucky, made an interesting address about the Jefferson Davis Home Association and the Fairview Monument to that noted leader.

A resolution thanking the people of Houston for the generous entertainment and the newspapers of the city for their notices, was passed by unanimous vote.

One minute standing was devoted to the memory of Comrade C. A. Leaverton, of Normangee, Leon County, Texas, 82 years of age, who was found dead in his room at 1235 Harvard Street. His death came from natural causes.

A resolution thanking the railroads for their cooperation and many favors was passed unanimously. Order of business being election of officers. General K. M. Van Zandt was nominated to succeed himself. No other nomination being made, by unanimous vote the Convention ordered the Adjutant General to cast the 1,320 votes of delegates for General Van Zandt, which was done.

Lieutenant General Julian S. Carr was re-elected Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia Department. Lieutenant General Calvin B. Vance was re-elected Commander of the Army of Tennessee Department. Lieutenant General Virgil Y. Cook was re-elected Commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department. The selection of the place of meeting for 1921 was left to the Commander, with his three Department Commanders. The Convention then adjourned. 
Adjutant General and Chief of Staff.

I. United Daughters of Confederacy, Exposition of the Historic Data John Drinkwater's "Abraham Lincoln."
II. Report of the Rutherford Committee.
III. Address by Rev. B. A. Owen, Assistant Chaplain Sons Confederate Veterans.
The following article by the Daughters of the Confederacy is an exposition of the historic data which John Drinkwater, an English writer, has woven into his recent drama, "Abraham Lincoln," and which is attracting widespread attention:
Mr. Drinkwater announced in the introduction to the drama that his purpose is that of the dramatist and not the historian. Unfortunately for his purpose, he deals extravagantly with historic facts, which deeply impress his audiences. The historic data used by him is exceedingly inaccurate and unjustly misleading. This history concerns a great and proud people, whose intellectual and spiritual force, whose civic and military achievements were vital factors in the building of this, the greatest nation in the world today. They are a people who have suffered greatly, but bravely and patiently, and they deserve their rightful place in history. The purpose of the Daughters of the Confederacy then is that of the historian in the defense of the truth.

The drama opens with a reference to the landing of the Pilgrims in the Mayflower, which suggests the legend to which certain New England writers have attempted to place the stamp of history that the Pilgrims in the Mayflower were the first English settlers in America and that all the great and good things which followed are to be accredited to them and their descendants. Jamestown, Va., as all school histories and encyclopedias will testify, was settled by the English in 1607. The Pilgrims did not come to America until 1620. By that time the Virginia Colony had become well established. A government with a written Constitution was in force. There were schools and churches. The plantations were cultivated as far inland as Richmond and a profitable commerce had begun to bear fruits. It was the success of this colony which induced the Pilgrims to come to America. Mr. Drinkwater draws a picture of England when Cromwell came into power, and makes it a setting for another picture portraying conditions in the United States, leading up to the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency.

They follow: "Once when a peril touched the days Of freedom in our English ways, And none renowned in government was equal found; Came to the steadfast heart of one Who watched in lonely Huntingdon, A summons and he went, And tyranny was bound, And Cromwell was Lord of his event. "And in that land where voyaging The Pilgrim Mayflower came to rest, Among the chosen, counseling; Once, when bewilderment possessed A people, none there was might draw To fold the wandering thoughts of men, Of liberty and law. "And then, from fifty fameless years in quiet Illinois was sent word that still the Atlantic hears, And Lincoln was the Lord of his event."

A real student of history will have great difficulty in tracing an analogy between conditions of the two historic periods as described by Mr. Drinkwater. "Law and Liberty" were made one in the United States as the result of the Revolutionary War, before Mr. Lincoln was ever born, and they continued in force until his accession to the Presidency. "Law and Liberty" found their rightful expression in the Declaration of Independence and reached their highest accent in the Constitution.

Instead of the people being possessed with "bewilderment," as described in the drama, those years covered the great constructive period, in which the United States as a nation was in process of building, and they present an era of progress without a parallel.

The immense extension of territory, founding of educational institutions, religious and benevolent institutions, and discoveries in science; inventions; steam as a motive power and the telegraph coming into use, improvement of the printing press, construction of the Atlantic cable; the great work of Matthew Fontain Murray in giving to the world the interpretation of the Gulf Stream and chart of the ocean currents; the stretch of internal improvements, both in highways and railroads; the Erie Canal plans of the great continental railroad, strengthening of coast defenses and elevating the army and navy to a higher standard by Jefferson Davis when Secretary of War, The establishment of international laws as the result of American victories which settled the rights of nations on the high seas, and the legislation which gave the protection of its Monroe Doctrine were notable achievements of the period, Christianity also received a wonderful impetus and was carried throughout the highways of the new territory, and to the Indians and Negroes on the large plantations. The missionary spirit to extend Christianity into foreign lands also gained force.

Instead of fameless years, the wonderful progress of these years developed illustrious characters of imperishable fame. Prominent among the leaders were Southern representatives, The list is too long to be catalogued in this article. Only a few of the most conspicuous can be mentioned. Among the Southern statesmen: George Washington, the first president; Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence; James Madison, the author of the Constitution; Edmond Randolph, the author of the Declaration of Independence; James Madison, the author of the Constitution; Edmond Randolph, the author of the "Laws of Neutrality"; George Mason, the author of the first "Declaration of Rights"; James Monroe, the author of the "Monroe Doctrine"; Patrick Henry, the father of "States Rights"; Chief Justices John Marshall and Roger Brooks Taney, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, the great "Pacificator"; Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens, James K. Polk, Charles Pinckney and others.

Among the Southern military heroes were: Of the Indian Wars, Zachary Taylor, Andrew Jackson, Jefferson Davis and others. Andrew Jackson was the greatest hero of the War of 1812, Houston and Davy Crockett of the Texas Revolution. The Mexican War developed a long list of heroes, the most distinguished were Generals Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and others.

General Scott gave Robert E. Lee the credit of planning the battles from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. Jefferson Davis' directed the brilliant victories of Buena Vista and Monterey. His heroism and military leadership at these two battles have never been surpassed and rarely equaled in the annals of war.

John Paul Jones, Admiral Raphael Semmes and Admiral Franklin Buchanan, who were recognized as among the most brilliant commanders in the navy, were from the South.

Southern writers of note, scientists, inventors, educators, founders of great institutions, promoters of progressive movements and ministers of note covered a large field in this era. In reviewing the wonderful panorama of great characters and their achievements, it will be interesting to know whom he has distinguished as the "Lord" of his event who had been announced by a certain element The Greatest American." As greatness is measured by service, he must have accomplished something marvelously great to have won such distinction over an array like this.

The records do not mention Mr. Lincoln in the lines or literature or science, or invention; the founding of any great institution or movement or that he ever contributed to their support. The records speak of him as having been connected with military affairs as captain of a company of volunteers from Illinois during the Black Hawk War.

Ida Tarbell one of his biographers, describes him as being perfectly ignorant of the manual and military discipline and that his mistakes were so grievous, that he was constantly under correction. She states that: "The only service he rendered was at Kellogg' s Grove. He had been ordered to join a regiment there and he arrived at the close of a skirmish and helped to bury five men, who were killed in the skirmish.

That the records be kept clear, it is well to mention here, that Jefferson Davis captured Black Hawk and conducted him to Jefferson Barracks. His treatment of the Hawk was so chivalrous, that the old chief always referred to him the fine young brave." From Black Hawk's Autobiography.

 Mr. Lincoln is recorded again as having served one term in Congress. He was not a success there, which he felt keenly, and he returned to the practice of law Mr. Drinkwater makes "The Emancipation of the Slaves" the dominant note of his drama as being the issue leading up to the War between the States, the North for freeing them and the South to continue them in slavery and that it was the policy of Mr. Lincoln's administration.

Real Cause of Secession. The unjust discrimination and the tariff of 1828-1833 the South paying two-thirds of the custom duties while she had only one-third of the vote; the unjust legislation in 1833 of giving the North the surplus of many millions in the public treasury for public improvements (George Lunt) the usurpation of power in regard to the rights of the states in the new territory and other violations of the Constitution detrimental to the vital interests of the South were the cause of secession, "Secession is not intended to break up the present government, but to perpetuate it. Our plan is to withdraw from the Union in order to allow amendments to the Constitution to be made, guaranteeing our just rights. If the Northern States will not permit the amendments, then we must secure them by a government of our own." (Scheffner's "Secession of War.")

Secession Was Constitutional. "If the Union was formed by the accession of States, then the Union may be dissolved by the secession of States." (Daniel Webster).  "If the Constitution is a compact, then the States have a right to secede." (Judge Story). "Any people whatever, have a right to abolish the existing government and form a new one, that suits them better." (Abraham Lincoln, Congressional Records, 1847).

"The South has an undeniable right to secede from the Union. In the event of secession, the city of New York and the State of New Jersey and very likely Connecticut will separate from the New England States, when the black man is put on a pinnacle above the white." (New York Herald, Nov. 11, 1860).

New England Was the Parent of Secession. "New England threatened secession as early as 1790 and again in 1799. John Quincy Adams announced that a plan was being arranged for New England to secede and form a union with Great Britain. In 1812 feeling again arose and New England again threatened secession. December 13th, 1814, to January 5, 1815, a convention was held at Hartford, Conn,, to which Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island sent representatives. The sessions were secret, but among the decisions later revealed was that secession was justifiable as a remedy for an uncongenial union." (Thompson's History of the United States).

The Statute of establishing perpetual slavery was adopted by Massachusetts, December, 1641. (Massachusetts Historical Collections). Another testimony establishing Constitutionality of secession is in the fact that Jefferson Davis was never brought to trial as a traitor. Chief Justice Chase said, Jefferson Davis be brought to trial it will convince the North and exonerate the South.

The Extension of Slave Territory the issue of 1860. The admission of additional territory brought in by the Louisiana Purchase and the annexation of Texas the great West and Northwest, precipitated new issues. The South held to the doctrine of State sovereignty which has been established by the Constitution and claimed that the States as they came in, had a right to adjust their own laws and to decide for themselves whether they would allow free or slave labor. The North and the East repudiated those laws. This brought bitter debates in Congress and became the campaign issue in 1860.

"The point the Republican Party wanted to stress was to oppose making slave-states out of newly acquired territory and not abolishing slavery as it existed. Lincoln spoke of anti-slavery men in 1862 as Radicals and coalitionists." (Rhodes History of the United States).

The Ft. Sumter affair was made a special feature of the drama, Mr. Lincoln attributing the motive of the Confederacy to continue slavery. "The forts of the South were partnership property and each State an equal party to the ownership. The Federal Government was only a general agent of the real partners: —the States which composed the Union, The forts went with the State. South Carolina could not deprive New York of her forts, nor could New York deprive South Carolina of hers," (Horton's History, pp, 71-72).

"South Carolina, feeling she had a Constitutional Sovereign right to her own territorial possession, sent commissioners to Washington to negotiate a peaceful withdrawal of the troops from what was her protection to her harbor. The commissioners were not recognized in their official capacity and were detained under misleading inducements until Lincoln through his war department could prepare for the defense of the fort. The vessels carrying the reinforcements refused to return or surrender and were fired on." (John, Codman Ropes Story of the Civil War).

The Cause of the War. The War Between the States was not caused by the question of the "Emancipation of the Slaves"; nor did it begin with the firing on Ft. Sumter. The cause and its declaration, centered in the order issued by Abraham Lincoln for 2,400 men and 265 guns for the defense of Sumter, followed by his call for 75,000 troops to coerce the South back into the Union.

"The determination expressed by Lincoln in his inaugural address to hold and occupy and possess the property and places belonging to the United States, precipitated the outbreak and his determination to collect duties and imports was practically an announcement of an offensive war." (Hosmer's History of the American Nation, Vol. 20, p. 20).

"The attempt to reinforce Sumter will provoke war. The very preparation of such an expedition will precipitate war. I would instruct Anderson to retire from Sumter. (Secretary William Seward in Lincoln's Cabinet),

That the war was not waged for the emancipation of the slaves, has an unanswerable argument in the fact that General Grant, the commander of the Union forces, was a slave-holder and retained possession of his slaves until freed by the war. General Lee, commander of the Confederate forces, freed his slaves before the war.

Another strong argument is in the fact, that there were 315,000 slave-holders in the North and non-seceding States and only 200,000 in the Confederacy.

"The war was inaugurated by the North and defended on an unconstitutional basis." (The Opening of the Twentieth Century).

"The North waged war to coerce the South back into the Union." Southern men fought a defensive war for State Bights and State Sovereignty, with a holy ardor and self-denying patriotism, that have covered even defeat with imperishable glory." (Charles Beecher Stowe).

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation a War Measure. This historic document, which was introduced by Mr. Lincoln after the war had advanced, has been given many versions. It is well here to state briefly the conditions which caused him to repudiate the statement made in his inaugural address in regard to the constitution and then let M. Lincoln make his own statement.

At the time of its inception (1862) the armies of the South were gloriously victorious. Their marvelous valor and achievements were startling the world. Carl Schurz, who had just returned from Europe, reported that a profound impression had been made on England and France, and that there was danger of the Southern Confederacy being recognized by them.

Mr. Lincoln then decided to meet the issue by the celebrated document. In presenting his intention to his cabinet, he stated. "I have no constitutional right to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States, but I think the Constitution invests the commander-in-chief with the law of war in time of war. Slaves are property. Has I here ever been any question, that by the law of war, property both of enemies and friends may be taken, when needed. Is it not needed whenever taking it helps us and hurts Liu- enemy Armies the world over destroy their own to keep it from the enemy. Civilized belligerents do all in their power to help themselves or hurt the enemy. Without this policy the Negroes will remain and continue to raise food." (Rhodes History of the United States. Ida Tarbell's Life of Abraham Lincoln and other biographers).

"The Negroes produce food for the Confederacy. It is a military necessity absolutely essential for the salvation of the nation, that the slaves be emancipated." (Thompson's History of the United States). "I made a solemn vow before God, that if General Lee was driven back from Maryland, I would crown the result by the declaration of freedom to the slaves." (Barn's Popular History).

Fearing the effect on the slaves in the slave territory outside the Confederate army and especially its effect on the 50,000 slave-holders in the Union Army, Mr. Lincoln placed special emphasis on his motive as being purely a war measure confined strictly to this territory and excluding the slaves in Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and portions of Tennessee, Virginia, and Louisiana, which were left in bondage. (His Proclamation), Lord John Russell, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, sneered at it and sent the following dispatch to the ministers at Washington: "It is a measure of a questionable kind; an act of vengeance on the slave owner. It possesses emancipation only where the United States Authority cannot make emancipation a reality, but not where that decree can be carried out."

As an excuse for arming the slaves, Mr. Lincoln said: "I am pretty well cured of any objection to any measure except want of adaptedness to putting down the rebellion," (James ,C. Welling's Reminiscences of Lincoln).

Rhodes in his history of the United States: "At a cabinet meeting when the proclamation was announced, Secretary Seward said: "At this junction (1862) it would likely seem the last measure of an exhausted government; our last shriek in retreat. Ida Tarbell makes the same statement. Mr. Lincoln was induced to wait for a Union victory.

It was a clear confession that they had failed to defeat the Confederate army in the open field of honor as man to man, and were compelled to resort to the method attacking through the homes. What a Magnificent Tribute to Valor!

It was a failure. None of Mr. Lincoln's objects were realized. The most of the slaves remained at home loyal and true, protecting the women and children, and they produced food for them. xx The proclamation had a depressing effect on stocks and the election in the States of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin, which followed the announcement in the previous September, went against the party in power. There were large desertions from the army. (Rhodes). The ranks were largely filled from foreign enlistment. Until the late World War, pensions amounting to nearly one million dollars were paid annually to foreigners, distributed through Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Belgium, Luxemburg, England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Canada for their services in helping to coerce loyal American descendants of the heroes of the Revolution. (Confederate Veteran). In speaking of it afterwards, Mr. Lincoln said: "It was the folly of my life. It was like the Pope's Bull against the comet." (Wendel Phillips).

It is a historical travesty to celebrate January 1st, the anniversary of the Proclamation, as "Emancipation Day." The slaves were freed by the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution after the war. This amendment was introduced by Mr. Henderson, of Missouri, a Southern man, and was the culmination of forces that had been at work for a half century. There were ISO abolition societies in the United States before 1820, of which 106 were in the South, (Lundy's Universal Emancipation.) Virginia Legislature made thirty-two efforts to abolish the slave trade. Georgia and other States did the same, but were defeated by New England representatives, George Washington urged the gradual emancipation of slaves and freed his by will. So did George Mason and John Randolph and the Lees. Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, urged, in the Declaration of Independence, that the slave trade be forbidden and John Adams, of Massachusetts, defeated it.

In 1816 the African Colonization Society was organized, with James Madison, of Virginia, as president. Thomas Jefferson testified that many slave-holders were planning to free their slaves. When James Monroe, of Virginia, was president, a tract of land on the west coast of Africa was secured for the colonization of slaves and called Liberia. In 1847 it became a republic, with Negroes as officers. Its capital was named "Monrovia," in honor of Monroe, and it was protected by the Monroe Doctrine.

Thousands of Negroes (more than were included in the Proclamation) were freed by Southern slave-holders in their wills. Jefferson Davis, when in the United States Senate, urged that a plan be made for emancipation that would be best for the slave-holder and the slave. The great problem confronting the movement was: How could they best dispose of the slave under freedom? This was why Southern men were so insistent about securing more space from the new territory, to relieve the congested condition of the slave States, that they might prepare the slaves freed for their future government, (Congressional Record.)

Charles Francis Adams, Jr., said: "Had the South been allowed to manage this question unfettered, the slaves would have been ere this fully emancipated and that without blood- shed."

The South Not Responsible for Slavery. If slavery was a sin so strongly defined by Mr. Lincoln and the Abolitionists of New England, the sin lies at the door of the New England slave traders, who brought the -slaves here and sold them. No Southern man ever owned or commanded a slave-ship or ever went to Africa for slaves. The first ship built in America to carry on the slave traffic was in Massachusetts and sailed from Marblehead, Mass., in 1836. (Thompson's History.)

The Southern planters gave them civilization and Christianity ; provided them with homes and home comforts, and taught them useful arts of industry. When the war broke cut, there were over 500,000 church members among: the slaves, and over $400,000 had been spent for their evangelization. They had become a part of the social order in the South. A more beautiful character does not figure in romance or legend than the "Black Mammy" of the old South.

The slave trade was a profitable enterprise in New England. Many of the fortunes that now startle us with their splendor in Newport, Rhode Island, had their origin in the stave trade. "The Cradle of Liberty," "Faneuil Hall," in Boston, was built by Peter Faneuil, its owner, with slave trade money. Girard College, in Philadelphia, was built by Stephen Girard with money made by African slaves on a Louisiana plantation.

Mr. Lincoln Violated The Constitution. Mr. Drinkwater places special emphasis on the fact that Mr. Lincoln scrupulously obeyed the Constitution "Abraham was all for the Constitution," said he in his drama. Calling for troops to coerce the South; refusing to withdraw from Fort Sumter, the territorial possession of South Carolina; the Emancipation Proclamation; destruction of private property; suspension of habeas corpus; unlawful arrests of law-abiding, peaceful citizens; suppression of the freedom of the press and free speech which marked the Lincoln Administration were violations of the Constitution. Making medicines and surgical instruments and appliances contraband of war and refusing an exchange of prisoners were violations of all recognized civilized warfare.

Mendel Phillips, in lectures in New York and Boston, 1861, said: "Lieber says that habeas corpus, free speech and tree press are the three elements which distinguish liberty from despotism. All that Saxon blood has earned in two hundred years are these three things, Today every one of them is annihilated in every square mile of the Republic. "

Thirty-eight thousand men and women, editors politicians, clergymen of good character and honor, are imprisoned m gloomy, damp casements for no overt acts, but simply because they were democratic suspects, many of them not having the least idea for what cause, and without being given a trial. The writ of habeas corpus was suspended by order of Mr. Lincoln in order to carry out the arbitrary arrests. (Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin, Bancroft's Life of Seward.)

The destruction of property in Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia was by order of the War Department, of which President Lincoln was the commander-in-chief. The only stain that mars the "Stars and Stripes" was placed under the Lincoln Administration. Such disregard for civilized rules was never allowed in any other war in which the "Stars and Stripes" have ever engaged.

Orders from Lieutenant General Grant, U. S. A. to Mai Gen. Sheridan m Virginia: "Do all the damage to railroads and crops you can. Carry off stock of all descriptions and the Negroes so as to prevent further planting. We want the Shenandoah Valley to remain a barren waste."

Sheridan's Official Report; "I have burned 2,000 barns filled with wheat and corn, all the mills in the whole country destroyed all the factories of cloth, killed or driven off every animal, even the poultry, that could contribute to human sustenance." "Nothing should be left in Shenandoah but eyes to lament the war."

(The Story of a Great March: "Brevet Maj. Geo. W. Nichols, Aide-de-Camp to Gen. Sherman.") History will in vain be searched for a parallel to the scathing and destructive effect of the invasion of the Carolinas. Aside from the destruction of military things, there were destructions overwhelming, overleaping- the present generation. Even if peace speedily come, agriculture and commerce cannot be revived in a day. On every side the head, center and rear of our columns might be traced by columns of smoke by day and the glare of names by night. The burning hand of war on these people is blasting, withering.

One hundred million dollars of damage has been done to Georgia; $20,000,000 inured to our benefit, the remainder simply waste and destruction. "I'll not restrain the army lest its vigor and energy be impaired." (Sherman's Memoirs.)

Story of a Great March. We are leaving Atlanta, Georgia, all aflame. The air is filled with flying, burning cinders. Buildings covering 200 acres are in ruined flames. I heard a soldier say, "I believe Sherman has set the very river on fire. The rebel inhabitants are in agony. The soldiers are as hearty and jolly as men can be." (Gregg's History, p. 375.)

The wanton pillage or uncompensated appropriation of individual property by an enemy's country is against the usage of modern times. (William M. Macy, Secretary of War, July 28, 1865.)

A Contrast. Gen. Lee, for fear his soldiers should pillage when foraging in Pennsylvania, had roll call three times a day.

President Davis issued the following orders: "In regard to the enemy's crews and vessels, you are to proceed with justice and humanity which characterizes our government and its citizens."

Gen. John B. Gordon to the women in York, Penn.: "If the torch is applied to a single dwelling or an insult offered to a woman by a soldier in my command, point me to the man and you shall have his life."

Gen. Lee Did Not Offer His Sword to Gen. Grant. Gen. Lee did not offer his sword to Gen. Grant. The scene of Gen. Grant refusing the sword of Gen. Robert to Lee in the drama is not in accordance with the real facts. Among the terms of surrender agreed to by the two commanders were that the Confederates were to retain their side arms and horses. Gen. Lee never offered his sword to Gen. Grant. Grant did not demand it. (War Rec) Abraham Lincoln Not a Christian, Mr. Drinkwater represents Mr. Lincoln in one scene as kneeling 1 in prayer, and reference is made of his Christianity. "No phase of Mr. Lincoln's character has been so persistently misrepresented as this of his religious belief. When he went to Salem he consorted with the free-thinkers and joined them in deriding the gospel story of Jesus. He wrote a labored book on the subject, which his friend, Hill, burned up. Not until after Mr. Lincolns death were any of these facts denied." (Lannom's Life of Lincoln.) Mr. Lincoln never made any confession of faith nor attached himself to any creed. (Ida Tarbell's Life of Lincoln.) "Abraham Lincoln became more discreet in later life and used words and phrases to make it appear that he was a Christian. But he never changed on this subject. He lived and died a deep-grounded infidel." (Herndon's Life of Lincoln.)

The Apotheosis. "Such is human sympathy and human love, that assassination is ever a consecration. The figure vanishes into mist, incense vapors a vision, not a man. There is little justice that is written of Lincoln. I have never read a description of him that recalls him as I Knew him. Something always beyond and beyond. Nor has fame been kind to him in the sense that fame is never kind unless it is just." (John Russell Young's Review in New York Times, January 18, 1902.)

The ceremony of Mr. Lincoln's Apotheosis was planned and executed after his death by men who were unfriendly to him while he lived. Men who had exhausted the resources of their skill and ingenuity in venomous destruction of the living Lincoln were the first after death to undertake the task of guarding the memory, not as a human, but a god. After his death it became political necessity to pose him as the greatest, Godliest man that ever lived. (Lannom's Life of Lincoln.)

The authors of the Apotheosis were those who hated Lincoln "in life, but hated the South more. They used it to incriminate the South and the South's great leader, Jefferson Davis, in Lincoln's assassination, and gave them what they viewed as justifiable causes for the horrors of the Reconstruction Period which followed. It found large space in the literature and histories of the times, and was largely circulated. It was necessary to deify Lincoln in order to sacrifice the South.

Lee's shrine at Lexington, not Lincoln's tomb, will be the shrine of American patriotism when once history is told correctly.
Dr. Littlefield, Neeham, Mass.
MRS. L. F. BEATY, Chairman State Historian Tennessee Division.
MRS. F. E. SELFH, Secretary.
Historian Kate Litlon Hickman Chapter.
MRS. B. D. BELL, State President.
MISS EDITH POPE, Editor Confederate Veteran.
Committee Appointed by Tennessee Division, U. D. C,, to Review the Drama.

Comrades: The Committee appointed at the last Reunion, 1919, to make an organized effort to have the truths of Confederate history imparted to our young organized, and in honor of the great Southern Educator and Historian, who suggested to you the. movement, named the Committee "The Rutherford Committee."

The Sons and Daughters organizations were invited to join with us, the Sons promptly accepted and appointed a Committee of Co-operation. The United Daughters of the Confederacy took no action, but many Units of the Organization have given us endorsement and assistance.

Your Committee aimed to work on two lines of endeavor, First: to have the truths of Confederate History taught to Colleges and High Schools by Lecturers; Second: to watch School Book adoptions and influence the adoption of books fair to the South.

As to the first. Your Committee was without funds to pay such lecturers, and hence these Lectures could be de- livered only to institutions willing to pay the very moderate charge established. We failed to secure such lecturers in any State save South Carolina, and in that State our Chairman undertook the work. He delivered a Lecture to nearly all the leading Colleges and Universities in the State and to several High Schools, which cheerfully met the expense. The practical success in South Carolina makes it fair to presume that the plan would work in other States. For these States we need Lecturers, and any one who can suggest suitable Lecturers will please do so to the Chairman or to any member of the Committee.

As to the second: The only State adoption which has so far occurred, was that of Mississippi. Your Committee made an earnest appeal to the Text Book Commission of that State, aroused the support of local Veterans and Sons, the latter led by the Sons' Commandant- in-Chief, Forest. The result was that the Histories adopted were fair to the South.

Wherever adoptions have come to our knowledge we have taken similar action. As the Colleges of the South are not generally governed by State adoptions, your Committee has just sent to each of the same the accompanying appeal, Exhibit A., together with Miss Rutherford's "Measuring Rod." The efforts of your Committee have been very much restricted by want of financial support, — contributions from the Veteran Members of the Committee have, in part, met the expense, but if any continued or more thorough work is to be done, you must provide the funds. You cannot hope to raise fifteen millions, as your Committee is not advocating the election of a President, but $5,000 or $10,000 will enable us to establish the Truth, exonerate our dead comrades and you, from the unjust slanders which have been so mercilessly heaped upon you and upon them in the attempt to justify the wrong side in the Struggle of the Sixties.

Your Committee bow to Miss Mildred Rutherford for her splendid efforts to advance the great cause for which she and they are striving. She published at her own expense her valued "Measuring Rod" and donated to the Veterans and Sons 2,000 copies, and to others 1,000 copies. This little booklet is a concentrated test, which if applied by the Adopting Boards to Histories, will assure only books fair to the South being used in our Schools. She submitted to cur Committee a vast collection of facts which every man, woman and child in the South should know. Only a small part could be used in her "Measuring Rod," so she published the majority, as "The Truths of History." She presented our Committee with 300 copies of these, and has given away to aid the great cause 4,460 copies. Are there not Veterans and Sons who can emulate the generosity of Miss Rutherford? But we have not found them yet. The Truths of History she could not be expected to give to the public, but they can be bought for 50 cents a copy. Untold value for 50¢ Your Committee urges that every Veteran and Son should show their love for and appreciation of Miss Rutherford by purchasing a copy.

In our work we are pleased to find that generally the School Authorities of the South have been awakened to the importance of using books fair to the South. Books actively antagonistic and unfair have become largely ruled out, but in many cases supplanted by books written simply not to antagonize Southern feeling. Such books while abstaining from unjust criticism and sometimes giving full credit to some deeds of the Confederates dare not tell the whole truth, and only by the whole truth can the South be fully vindicated. Our children should not be taught from histories written to please both sides, nor from deleted books, with a Northern and a Southern Edition. They should be taught from Histories which give the full truth, and only by such can the South be vindicated. The agitation in the past by the Confederate organizations has brought about the good so far obtained and a continuance thereof will, we are sure, end in having our young taught that the South was right in Secession, that the men fought a noble fight, and the women gloriously backed them, and that only the overpowering of numbers and resources forced the truth to earth.

If this line of action promotes Sectionalism, let the blame rest upon The defamers who have made defense necessary.
C. IRVINE WALKER, Chairman. Endorsed 10-7-29, by Convention

The following Appeal had been issued: To all College and School Authorities of the South: There is no sectionalism in this appeal. If we are wrong and there is, then let any blame rest upon those who by defamation have rendered defense necessary.

The young of the South should be taught historical truth. Their forbears of Confederate days should be judged not by conditions existing today, but by those which prevailed in 1861, When the States seceded in the sixties, each seceded from a constitutional, and universally recognized, federation of Sovereign States. Our country as a centralized nation did not exist in 1861. So our text books should, in all fairness and truth, teach that the motives of the actors in that great drama were influenced by facts then existing and not by those obtaining today. Too many of the histories used in teaching our young, even when the authors are disposed to be impartial, which, alas, many are not present secession viewed through the glasses of today and not those of 1861. It is due to the Veterans and mothers of the Confederacy that the young be taught to "Honor thy Father and thy Mother" and not to despise them as either traitors or imbeciles.

 Our Rutherford Committee in. the name of and authorized by the great Confederate Federations, the veterans and sons, appeal most earnestly to all educators to see that no histories are studied or even placed upon library shelves, which do not render impartial justice to the Confederates.

We send "The Measuring Rod," by that eminent Southern educator and historian, Miss Mildred L. Rutherford, and ask that all educators will apply this "Rod" to all books offered for use in their institutions and promptly reject any which does not measure "fair to the South" by this rod.

C. Irvine Walker
Julian S, Carr
Calvin B. Vance
Virgil Y. Cook
A. J. Twiggs
Sons of Veterans:
Albert Sidney Johnston
John W. Hooper
W. C. Chandler
W. S. Lemly
J. J. Slaughter

The wheel of Time makes another revolution and its recurring cycle is signalized by the meeting of the honoredConfederate Veteran with his comrades of bygone days in thirty-first annual reunion. Your sons, with pardonable pride in the heritage of glory wrought out for them on the gory fields of battle and in the pleasant paths of peace, and with purpose to bequeath that heritage untarnished to those who follow in their train, are come also to witness the one sad, fast-fading joy remaining to the heroes of the "Lost Cause" and to catch the inspiration freighted here on every passing breeze. Your daughters, the Daughters of the Confederacy, are present, clothed in all the radiant beauty of Southern young womanhood, and bring their tribute of reverence and honor and love. Three generations of us are met together in this goodly Southern city to live over again immortal memories and to weld anew the bonds of love which shall too soon be severed by the hand of death.

It is well that you thus come together in these great annual convocations. Golden deeds shall fade and perish from the memory of man unless told with sympathetic touch in story and song and fed by the fires of inspiration such as are kindled on occasions like these. Always, comrades in a common cause feel the surge of compelling conviction and find for flagging zeal and fading strength a bracing cordial in meeting en masse. The lone pilgrim grows fainthearted as, footsore and weary, he trudges along the dusty way; but his blood runs faster, his step becomes elastic, and his heart leaps up as comrades press his side and journey with him. There is a peculiar loneliness that must steal ever and anon upon the Confederate veteran as farther he draws from the fields of conflict made immortal by his gallant deeds. Cherishing the dead ashes of a once living faith, with his thinned ranks being fast decimated by death, his heart yearns for the fellowship of kindred spirits. In these annual meetings, his longing is realized as fraternity, weaving her silken threads and enfolding him in her charms, breaks the dreary monotony of life and Tills his heart with the rippling waves of joy. Coming thus together, you will make impress upon a busy world which shall pause to listen to the cadences of your sad sweet story, again to resume its interrupted march, cherishing always for you a deeper reverence and according to you that tribute of praise that, as soldiers ever true and brave and now as citizens of fidelity and honor, you so justly deserve.

This good hour brings you to an empire of treeless plain and wooded forest whose wealth is illimitable and whose glory is imperishable, and whose sons are fed from childhood on her history of patriotic deed and daring. The pillars of this commonwealth were laid in the blood of her rugged pioneers. Here you will find a people with spirits kindred to yours. The soul fiber of her sons has been strengthened by struggle, first in subduing the wild wilderness and the wilder red man native to her soil. Then, with life and destiny imperiled, they saddled their little Indian ponies, and with sword thrust and sabre stroke, drove the Mexican greaser back across the Rio Grande to his cactus home, proclaiming in that act that dominion and power in this Western realm should belong to the proud Anglo-Saxon race.

It is a state with a checkered history. Seven flags have waved over, her people and claimed their allegiance. One of these was the flag whose fortunes you followed for four long years till, at length, it trailed in the dust, the Stars and Bars of the Southern Confederacy.

It is a land of inspiring memory and abiding monument. Fifteen minutes away is San Jacinto battle field, where General Sam Houston crushed the arrogant foe and won for Texas her independence. And yonder in my city is the historic Alamo, monument of imperishable glory, where, to a man, Crockett and Travis and Bowie and their noble compatriots perished, choosing death rather than a prisoner's fate with the Mexican foe. Her contribution to the Southern Confederacy consisted of Terry's Texas Rangers and Hood's Texas Brigade, both as brave as Marshal Ney's rear guard of the grand army of France, and Albert Sidney Johnston, and eighty thousand men as brave as the bravest whose blood crimsoned the hillsides of a hundred fields of battle As you breathe the air of this State, fresh from the white capped waves of the Gulf, remember that it reveres men like you; that none ever more loyal to your standard than they; and that her citizenship is grafted from the best stock the Old South ever produced.

From Appomattox, where in grim grandeur the Confederacy died, till now is a long span. The wheels of progress have moved unceasingly on. Our country has marched to the forefront among the nations of the earth and today holds the balance in the scale of world dominion The titanic struggle between the twenty-one nations of earth was brought to a speedy close by the intervention of my country and yours as she gave herself to force without stint and decided against German autocracy and wrong and for democracy and right. Our country has entered upon her manifest destiny, the champion of the moral forces of the universe and the umpire in the international conflict between the forces of righteousness and the forces of unrighteousness. In that role lies her chiefest glory. And God grant that she shall be true to her mission.

Granting all that, was the war between the states a fruitless struggle, and was your effort for the disruption of the union and the establishment of a separate government a crime? In my teens, a conviction respecting that matter was formed, and that conviction remains fast fixed through the years. Victor Hugo, in seeking a solution of the issue of Waterloo, explains it in one word, "GOD." And to me the explanation of the tragic end of the short-lived Confederacy at Appomattox is that God, in His inscrutable wisdom, ordained that this union between the States, though loose and imperfect, should not be dissolved. You will remember that the foundations of this republic were not laid till humble appeal in prayer to God was made for divine guidance and protection. Patrick Henry gives us the cue that explains every page of the history of our national life. Speaking before the Continental Congress, and urging them, though weak and unpanoplied, to strike for the inalienable right of liberty, he said: "Besides all this, Cod will raise up friends to fight for us." His prophecy came true. Lafayette came with his French comrades, seven thousand of them, and in the darkest night of the war for independence turned the tides of defeat into victory. And God has ever jealously guarded the destinies of this republic, and, with His watchful eye of love, has kept this last sanctuary of His divine purposes as He kept Israel, the depository of the divine oracles in the ancient age; so that every issue of the sword, including that in which you drank to the bitter dregs the cup of defeat, has been settled after the immutable counsels of His own righteous will. If that bears the stamp of Presbyterianism, I disdain a distinction not mine, and humbly confess that I swear allegiance to the creed and death less principles of the Baptist peoples. The conflict joined in the sixties was engermed in the constitution written by our fathers; It admitted of double interpretation ; and unfortunately the North and the South could not agree in the interpretation of that document. The struggle waged so gloriously by you was bound to come, some, time in the history of this nation, Mutterings of it had been heard almost from the first. That it came in your lifetime, we your sons were saved from its indescribable horrors.

To the issue as decided by the arbitrament of the sword, you and we have long since reconciled ourselves. The destiny to which we have arrived as a united people, we realize, had never been achieved by a divided country. And that struggle forever put a stop to petty sectional jealousies and bickering between the North and the South. As one people, with one purpose and aim, as with one flag, we sent Joe Wheeler to fight side by side with Theodore Roosevelt ! in Cuba, and brought liberty to the captives of that beautiful isle. As one people with one flag of forty-five stars, eighteen of them representing the Southern States that swear a fealty to it in which there is no secret evasion or mental reservation, two million sons, North and South, crossed the treacherous seas and put down the flag of the imperial Kaiser and, in. triumph, raised aloft the folds of Old Glory on the sodden, suffering, bleeding fields of France. In my heart I sing the paeans of praise to Almighty God for that culmination; and I thank God that there is now unity in purpose and purpose in the unity of this grand confederation of states, which, please God, shall be forever indissoluble.

With these reflections, then, you may go out from this reunion with unwavering doubt as to the justice of your cause, assured that we, your sons, proud of your record, will never apologize for your part in the war between the States; and with this sweet boon, we bid you pillow your heads in peace in the hour and article of death. That the iron in your blood may keep its temper and the fire in your souls may flame afresh, we want to assure you that we do not reckon you as traitors to your country nor do we feel that your struggle was in vain; and that every loyal son of the Confederacy, yes, every son of the South, worthy a habitation and a home under her soft blue skies, carries that same conviction rooted deep in the recesses of his soul.

The South is a land of tragedy. The old Virginia fields over which I passed recently have all of them been drenched in blood. Mississippi and Tennessee have felt the tread of contending armies that brought desolation to her peoples and ruin to her industries. South Carolina, that sounded first the signal of defiance in her belching guns at Sumter, paid for her audacity in a terrible vengeance wreaked upon her by the enemy; and the monuments of civilization in Georgia went down in fiery flames kindled by the hands of the relentless foe. Her every section suffered the untold horrors of war that was avowedly pushed to break her proud spirit and bring her to subjection. On July 4th, 1863, two staggering blows were struck, the one at Gettysburg, the other at Vicksburg, that sent her reeling to her certain doom, and in grim grandeur, the long agony of the Confederacy ended at Appomattox, April 9th, 1865.

But a land without sorrow is a land without monument, and a land without monument is a land without its abiding stories. Bunker Hill monument is a shaft of light and glory, and spells the sublime story of the supreme sacrifice of men that loved liberty better than life. The pales of glory lead but to the grave. The cross, once a token of ignominy, is now a badge of honor; and Calvary, while place of agony, is place of redemption, that draws by its divine magnetism ever swelling hosts of worshippers.

The chiefest monument reared by the Old South and passed on to the New is the fadeless memory of rugged men who supported conscience in the toll of sacrifice and spurned to barter principle for the paltry perishable possessions of time. As token of it, we point to the hardships of four years of frightful war which you bore without a murmur, and to the scars you brought back to the blackened ruins of your homes. As inspiring to me as the strains of martial music, as sweet as the memory of a marriage bell, as tender as the touch of baby fingers, as dear as remembered kisses after death, is the memory of a youth yet in his teens as he followed the fickle fortunes of the Lost Cause, till in Missouri, in a mad cavalry dash, under General Price, he fell pierced to the vitals by a minie ball. Times without number while he lingered here did I climb his knee and beg for a fragment of that story of glory of which you are the last fast passing survivors. And as I now recall that ghastly hole in his breast, that cruel mark of war which carried him to a premature grave, I think of it, not in bitterness and in vindictive spirit, but as a heritage of glory; and if I forget the priceless legacy of his character and sacrifice, may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth and my hands fall nerveless to my side. This is a memorial service. The memory of the noble dead always refines. We journey oft to the cemetery and gather close about the mounds of clay under which rests the ashes of our loved ones, and in silence, we steal away, carrying in our bosoms the flaming passion for a better life. The most sacred and hallowed service of our Christian churches is that service wherein, with the broken bread and the poured-out wine, our hearts are focused upon Calvary's cross and the dying Lamb of God, In that service, we sit transfixed in wonder at the outreach and the down reach of God's amazing love, and out of the atmosphere gendered there, we file slowly out, with faces set like flint on the fadeless fields of light that lie beyond.

So here today, we hold sweet converse with the spirits of departed comrades. We cannot forget them. While they sleep beneath the dust on a thousand hillsides, with the soughing pines playing their last sad requiem and the lone night bird picketing their lowly couches, let us remember them as good soldiers of the Southern Confederacy, the aristocrats of suffering and sorrow, the real aristocracy of the Old South, and whatever of fault or foible was theirs, let us cover at with the mantle of sweet charity. And when between this and the next reunion, you shall hear the clarion bell of death, as many, many of you will, may it be granted you, because of your childlike faith in Christ, the Son of God, like the immortal Stonewall Jackson that you so loved, to cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees in the land beyond the everlasting blue.

Typing and Format by C. W. Barnum